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India

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1997
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I. Introduction

India’s economic expansion gathered momentum during 1995/96, fueled by a vigorous supply response to the reforms, although as capacity constraints tighten, growth looks likely to moderate somewhat in 1996/97.1 Restrictive monetary policy, combined with a delay in administered price adjustments, helped to bring inflation down during 1995/96. However, wholesale price inflation has picked up moderately in recent months following petroleum price increases.

The external situation came under pressure in 1995/96, reflecting both a widening of the current account deficit and a slowdown in private capital inflows. Following several episodes of sharp depreciation of the rupee and a decline in international reserves, the foreign exchange market has stabilized since February 1996 and there has been some buildup in international reserves over the past six months.

The fiscal deficit has declined gradually since 1993/94, but remains large. The central government deficit was brought down to 5.7 percent of GDP in 1995/96 and the 1996/97 budget envisages a further modest reduction to 5 percent of GDP. The overall public sector deficit (including central and state governments, and central public enterprises) remained at over 9 percent of GDP in 1995/96. With the high fiscal deficit, monetary policy has carried the main burden of macroeconomic stabilization. The decline in broad money growth helped to reduce inflation in 1995/96, but the continuation of large fiscal deficits at a time of surging private investment inevitably put upward pressure on interest rates. Concerns over the impact of the tight liquidity conditions on economic activity prompted an easing of monetary policy in early 1996/97.

The process of structural reform was relatively slow in the period prior to the May 1996 Parliamentary elections. Significant headway was made in certain areas of financial sector reform, notably in deregulating interest rates, and further progress was also achieved in lowering tariffs and simplifying the tax system (Box 1). However, delays in establishing an appropriate transparent framework (e.g., with respect to bidding procedures and uncertainties in cost recovery and risk sharing) slowed the expansion of private sector participation in infrastructure sectors and little was achieved in public enterprise and agricultural reform. Recently, the new Government has outlined a number of broad objectives for continuing the structural reform process as a part of its Common Minimum Program (Box 2) and has launched a number of initiatives aimed at encouraging foreign investment, pushing forward tax and tariff reform, and promoting infrastructure.

Box 1.Recent Structural Reforms

Progress has continued in implementing structural reforms over the past year, particularly in financial markets.

  • Interest rate liberalization. The ceiling on interest rates on bank deposits of over one year maturity was removed in April 1996, while the loan rates of regional rural banks were liberalized in August 1996. Most interest rates are now deregulated except those on deposits of less than one year and on small commercial bank loans.
  • Capital market reforms. A primary dealer system has been established for the government securities market. Screen-based trading systems have been introduced on most stock exchanges. A central share depository system is being set up. These reforms will serve to improve transparency and liquidity in capital markets.
  • Exchange market liberalization. The system of foreign currency exposure limits for commercial banks has been overhauled. Automatic approval is now given for use of foreign currency hedging instruments.
  • Tax reforms. The MODVAT system has been extended to the textiles sector, so that the VAT-like system of tax credits under the excise tax now covers all manufactured products. A few additional services have been included in the indirect tax net. As a base-broadening measure, the budget also introduced a minimum corporation tax to be applied to corporate book profits, while halving the corporate tax surcharge to 7 1/2 percent.
  • Trade reforms. The 1996/97 budget lowered tariffs on a range of raw materials and intermediate goods, reducing the average import-weighted tariff from 25.2 percent to 22.7 percent. A number of additional consumer goods have been transferred to the list of products eligible for import under the special import license (SIL) scheme (a SIL is a tradeable import license allocated to exporters), while other products were transferred from the SIL to the open general license (OGL) list.
  • Foreign investment. The new Government has streamlined the approval process for foreign direct investment, and set up the Foreign Investment Promotion Council (FIPC) to foster such investment. The limit on holdings by individual foreign institutional investors (FIIs) in a company has been raised from 5 percent to 10 percent of the company’s shares, while FIIs have also been allowed to invest in non-listed companies.
  • Infrastructure. Licenses have been allocated for private sector provision of telephone services in eight major delivery areas. Private development is proceeding in a number of infrastructure projects (including power generation, airport, ports, and roads), although progress has generally been slow and little new capacity has yet resulted from these initiatives.

Box 2.The New Government’s Common Minimum Program

The new United Front coalition government announced its “Common Minimum Program” (CMP) in early June 1996, to provide a general outline of its policy agenda. The CMP emphasizes a shift toward greater decentralization and social justice, as well as continued economic and political reform. A key objective is to raise real GDP growth to 7 percent per year, with the aim of eliminating poverty in India by 2005.

Some of the areas highlighted were:

  • The central government’s fiscal deficit is to be reduced to below 4 percent of GDP through continued tax reform, eliminating unproductive expenditure, and improved targeting of subsidies.
  • The food subsidy system will be revamped to improve targeting for the poor. Underprivileged sections would also benefit from the continuation and extension of reservations in public employment as well as increased investment in education, health care, and drinking water.
  • Agricultural reforms are to focus on increasing rural credit and investment, abolishing regulations and controls to raise incomes, and legislation to guarantee minimum wages, fair conditions, and group insurance.
  • Industrial reforms are to include further easing and greater transparency of regulations on foreign investment. Tax and credit policies are to encourage both domestic and foreign investment in infrastructure.
  • Public enterprise reform will focus on restructuring and rehabilitation. A Divestment Commission will advise the Government on the further withdrawal of the public sector from core and noncore strategic areas.
  • States would be given greater autonomy over development plans and a high level committee will examine the question of greater devolution of financial powers to the states.

II. Economic activity and prices

Real GDP growth accelerated from 6 1/4 percent in 1994/95 to 7 percent in 1995/96, reflecting mainly the growing response in the industrial sector to the earlier reforms (Table 1).2 In contrast to previous episodes of rapid growth, economic performance in 1995/96 was not associated with exceptional agricultural growth related to particularly favorable weather conditions. Output growth is likely to be in the range of 6-6 1/2 percent in 1996/97, with performance in some basic industries beginning to be affected by capacity constraints.

Table 1.India: Growth Rates of GDP by Sector(Percent)
1991/921992/931993/941994/95Prel. Est.

1995/96
GDP at factor
cost0.85.15.06.37.0
Of which:
Agriculture-2.05.83.34.92.7
Industry-1.64.44.28.612.0
Services4.95.16.86.07.0
Source: Government of India, Central Statistical Office.
Source: Government of India, Central Statistical Office.

Industrial production rose 12 percent during 1995/96, led by a robust expansion in manufacturing output (Chart 1). The strong performance in the manufacturing sector was more broadly based than in previous years, with particularly rapid growth in capital goods and consumer durables (Appendix Table 4). Growth in both mining output and electricity generation also remained buoyant. In the first three months of 1996/97, industrial production growth slowed to 9 3/4 percent, with particularly weak performance in a few basic sectors: growth of electricity generation has come down sharply, while crude oil and fertilizer production have declined. This weakness in some sectors seems to have been due, at least in part, to emerging capacity constraints reflecting a lack of investment in earlier years.

CHART 1INDIA ACTIVITY AND PRICES, 1994–1996

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

1/ 3-month moving average.

2/ Index for industrial workers.

Agricultural growth moderated in 1995/96 from the high base achieved in the previous year, as foodgrain production--which had reached a record high in 1994/95--declined marginally (Appendix Table 5). With growing internal demand and higher grain exports, public food stocks declined from their record level of 33 million tons in mid-1995 to 22.7 millions tons by April 1996, although still considerably above the Government’s prescribed norm of 15 million tons. Favorable climatic conditions during the first few months of 1996/97 suggest that a further good harvest can be expected this year, the ninth consecutive good monsoon.

Higher public and private savings both contributed to an expansion in gross domestic savings in 1994/95, reversing several years of stagnation (Table 2).3 Gross domestic investment also expanded in 1994/95, associated with the strong recovery in private investment. Investment in machinery, equipment, and construction was particularly buoyant. While firm data are not yet available, investment during 1995/96 appears to have remained strong, as indicated by continued rapid growth in capital goods production as well as buoyant imports of capital goods.4 However, investment in the infrastructure industries appears to have been adversely affected by inadequate internal resource generation and cost recovery (e.g., in the power sector) as well as well as delays in setting up the framework for private sector participation.

Table 2.India: Saving and Investment(As percent of GDP at current market prices)
1991/921992/931993/941994/95
Gross domestic savings22.821.221.424.4
Public1.91.50.51.7
Private20.919.620.822.7
Gross domestic investment23.423.121.625.2
Public9.28.98.68.8
Private13.515.112.814.3
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Source: Central Statistical Organization.

Wholesale price inflation was reduced to 5 percent in 1995/96 from 10 1/2 percent in the previous year (Appendix Table 8). This decline reflected mainly the impact of a tight monetary policy and delays in adjusting administered prices. Most administered prices--which account for almost 16 percent of the wholesale price index (WPI)--had not been adjusted since early 1994.5 Price increases of primary goods (mainly food items) also moderated in 1995/96, owing in part to the sales from foodgrain stocks through the public distribution system, as well as higher imports of essential agricultural goods following the removal of quantitative restrictions on some products (e.g., edible oil) and a reduction in customs duties. Consumer price inflation declined more modestly--from 9.7 percent during 1994/95 to 8.9 percent during 1995/96. The significant differential between wholesale and consumer price inflation was partly due to the lower weight of administered prices in the consumer price index. The CPI has also been less affected by the increasing openness of the Indian economy, which has had little impact on services and many consumer goods--products with a larger weight in the CPI than in the WPI.6

Wholesale price inflation has picked up in 1996/97, reaching 6 1/2 percent by September 1996 (see Chart 1). This rise has reflected the pass-through of a 20 percent increase in administered prices of petroleum products in July (other administered prices have not yet been adjusted) as well as rising cereal prices. Consumer price inflation has continued to decline, falling to 8.3 percent in July 1996, so that the differential between the two indices has narrowed. The authorities have indicated that they aim to hold wholesale price inflation in the range of 6-7 percent in 1996/97 as a whole.

One of India’s key challenges is to provide adequate infrastructure to support continued rapid growth. Insufficient capacity and inefficiencies in critical areas of infrastructure threaten to constrain the expansion of agricultural and industrial production and exports. Faced with growing budgetary constraints, the Government has acted on a number of fronts in recent years to encourage private sector investment in certain infrastructure areas to supplement public investment. However, to date, only limited investments have actually been implemented by the private sector. Obstacles have been; (i) difficulties in ensuring adequate cost recovery, including setting appropriate tariffs; (ii) a lack of a clear framework for allocating risks; and (iii) a relatively thin market for long-term private debt.7

  • To address the growing power deficit, the central government allowed private sector participation in electricity generation in 1991. However, subsequent progress has been slow, in large part because distribution is still dominated by the financially weak state electricity boards (SEBs). To jump start the process, the central government signed agreements-in-principle to provide counter-guarantees for state power purchase agreements with eight large private sector power projects: four of these agreements have now been finalized. Nevertheless, the uncertainties about cost recovery (e.g. in raising electricity tariffs) and complexities in establishing risk-sharing arrangements have contributed to substantial delays in implementing these projects. The Ministry of Power took steps to streamline private power investment, including the introduction of new guidelines for project screening and clearance in early 1996. Several states have begun to implement some SEB reforms, notably in Orissa, where a pilot project has been set up with World Bank assistance, which aims to separate the distribution, generation, and regulatory functions and includes a reform of the electricity tariff structure.
  • In the telecommunications sector, private cellular phone service has commenced in four major metropolitan areas (Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, and Madras) and tenders were recently invited for licenses in other areas. Less progress has been made in introducing private sector participation in basic telecommunication services. Only 8 of the 20 basic telecommunication service areas have been awarded so far after two rounds of bidding, owing to problems in the bidding procedures, and no contracts have yet been signed, pending specification of the precise regulations for private sector participation by the recently established regulatory authority.
  • Private participation has made some headway in other areas, including the privatization of several port facilities and final approval for a new international airport in Bangalore. To help upgrade India’s road network, the National Highways Act was amended in 1995 to permit the levy of fees in order to encourage private sector participation in the construction, operation, and maintenance of roads on a build-operate-transfer (BOT) basis. So far, one project has been awarded, and tenders have been invited for five more national highway projects, although it is recognized that the public sector would need to play the dominant role in this area.

Other initiatives to encourage infrastructure investment include steps to ease restrictions on foreign investment in infrastructure (see section V), tax incentives, and plans to set up an Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC) with Rs 10 billion in share capital from the Government and the Reserve Bank. The Government has indicated that the IDFC will provide refinance and financial guarantees, as well as lend directly for infrastructure projects.

III. Fiscal Developments

The pace of fiscal adjustment since 1990/91 has been modest and uneven. A sizeable reduction in the central government deficit was achieved during 1991/92-1992/93 but the gain was partly reversed in 1993/94 (Table 3 and Chart 2). Moderate progress was made in the following two years, bringing the central government deficit down to 5.7 percent of GDP in 1995/96, slightly higher than the target of 5.5 percent of GDP (Table 4). A more substantial reduction in the primary deficit was offset by rising interest payments, as the average interest rate on government debt has risen in response to the shift of government borrowing to market terms since 1991.8 The overall public sector deficit for 1995/96 is estimated at 9.1 percent of GDP, the same as in 1994/95.

Table 3.India: Public Sector Operations 1/(In percent of GDP)
1990/911993/941994/95Rev. Est.

1995/96
Budget

1996/97
Central government
Revenue and grants10.89.910.710.811.3
Expenditure and net lending19.117.516.816.516.3
Primary balance-4.3-2.9-1.4-0.9-0.2
Overall balance-8.3-7.5-6.1-5.7-5.0
Overall public sector balance 2/-12.0-11.0-9.1-9.1-8.3
States’ balance-3.5-2.6-2.9-3.1-2.8
Central public enterprises’ balance-3.2-3.1-2.6-2.1-2.5
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

The consolidated public sector comprises the operations of the central government, the state governments and Union Territories, and the central public enterprises.

The overall balance is less than the sum of its components due to intrasector transfers.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

The consolidated public sector comprises the operations of the central government, the state governments and Union Territories, and the central public enterprises.

The overall balance is less than the sum of its components due to intrasector transfers.

CHART 2INDIA PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTS, 1990/91 – 1996/97 1/

(in percent of GDP)

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

1/ 1996/97 figures are budget estimates

Table 4.India: Central Government Operations, 1991/92-1996/97
1991/921992/931993/941994/95Budget

1995/96
Rev. Est.

1995/96
Budget Est.

1996/97
(In billions of rupees)
Total revenue and grants721.4795.3796.01,011.61,134.61,180.51,412.6
Net tax revenue500.7540.4534.5674.5743.7820.7973.1
Gross tax revenue673.6746.4757.4922.91,037.61,113.31,321.5
Less: States’share172.9205.9222.9248.4293.9292.7348.4
Non-tax revenue211.2245.7251.6326.7379.3349.1431.4
Of which: divestment receipts30.419.6-0.550.870.03.650.0
Grants9.59.29.910.411.510.78.1
Total expenditure and net lending1,084.61,197.11,398.61,588.61,711.01,799.92,035.3
Current expenditure854.5961.51,128.61,267.51,420.01,490.51,677.4
Of which:
Major subsidies97.994.1107.6115.3114.7124.4147.2
Interest payments266.0310.8367.4440.5520.0520.5600.0
Capital expenditure and net lending230.2235.6270.0321.1290.9309.4357.9
Overall balance-363.3-401.7-602.6-577.0-576.3-619.4-622.7
Financing363.3401.7602.6577.0576.3619.4622.7
External (net)54.253.250.751.544.619.724.6
Domestic (net)309.0348.6551.8525.6531.8599.7598.1
Oil Coordination Committee
(OCC) balance-11.01.5-1.512.8-25.0-19.6-8.0
Overall balance including
OCC account-374.3-400.2-604.1-564.2-601.3-639.0-630.7
Adjusted overall balance 1/-393.6-421.4-602.1-627.8-646.3-623.0-672.7
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and grants11.711.39.910.710.810.811.3
Total expenditure and net lending17.617.017.516.816.316.516.3
Current expenditure13.913.714.113.413.513.613.4
Of which:
Major subsidies1.61.31.31.21.11.11.2
Interest payments4.34.44.64.75.04.84.8
Capital expenditure and net lending3.73.43.43.42.82.82.9
Overall balance-5.9-5.7-7.5-6.1-5.5-5.7-5.0
Overall balance including OCC account-6.1-5.7-7.5-6.0-5.7-5.8-5.0
Adjusted overall balance 1/-6.4-6.0-7.5-6.6-6.2-5.7-5.4
Memorandum items:
Net resources transferred to states7.16.86.86.36.06.06.0
Primary balance 2/-1.6-1.3-2.9-1.4-0.5-0.9-0.2
Consolidated public sector balance 3/-9.3-9.4-11.0-9.1-9.9-9.1-8.3
Nominal GDP (Rs billions)6,160.67,028.38,010.39,456.210,485.610,927.512,522.4
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Overall balance less divestment receipts.

Overall balance excluding interest payments.

The consolidated public sector comprises the central government, state governments, and central public enterprises.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Overall balance less divestment receipts.

Overall balance excluding interest payments.

The consolidated public sector comprises the central government, state governments, and central public enterprises.

The 1995/96 budget aimed at a moderate reduction of the central government deficit. Most of the envisaged deficit reduction was to come through reduced expenditure on loans to states and central public enterprises. Continued tax buoyancy--owing to improvements in tax administration and cyclical gains--was expected to offset the revenue impact of reductions in tax rates as part of ongoing tax reforms.9

In the event, revenues increased in line with the budget, although the composition was significantly different. Gains from buoyant personal income and corporate taxes (0.2 percent of GDP), customs duties (0.5 percent of GDP) and telecom license fees (0.2 percent of GDP), largely offset weaker excise duties (0.3 percent of GDP) and a major shortfall in divestment receipts (0.7 percent of GDP). Buoyant tax revenue mainly reflected the strength of the economy and the cumulative effect of measures taken to broaden the tax base and plug leakages in the system, although excise duty collections were affected by higher-than-expected MOD VAT credits for capital goods and problems in tax administration.10 Weak stock market conditions contributed to the failure of the divestment program, which generated only Rs 3.6 billion of the budgeted Rs 70 billion. An unanticipated receipt of Rs 18.5 billion from telecom license fees helped contain the shortfall in nontax revenue to 0.4 percent of GDP (Table 4).

Expenditures were 0.2 percent of GDP higher than budgeted. There was a small overrun in the fertilizer subsidy bill, owing to higher-than-anticipated fertilizer imports toward the end of the year and rising prices in international markets. Loans to states against small savings collections exceeded budget targets by 1/4 percent of GDP, reflecting intensified efforts by states to mobilize such deposits from individuals.11 Several new spending initiatives announced after the budget--most importantly for school mid-day meals and a national social assistance program for the poor--contributed to an increase in plan current spending. However, plan capital outlays fell significantly below budgeted amounts, reflecting a deliberate effort to curtail spending as well as the slow execution of a number of externally financed power projects.

Financing of the central government’s deficit by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) increased sharply to 1.8 percent of GDP in 1995/96 compared with 0.2 percent in 1994/95. The main reasons for the increased RBI financing of the deficit were: (i) shortfalls in non-RBI market borrowing, reflecting the Government’s reluctance to accept rising interest rates in primary auctions despite tightening liquidity conditions; and (ii) shortfalls in external financing, mainly due to slower-than-expected implementation of externally financed projects. Strong small savings collections provided some offset to these shortfalls.

The deficit of the state governments is estimated to have risen slightly from 2.9 percent of GDP in 1994/95 to 3.1 percent of GDP in 1995/96, reflecting a small decline in grants from the center relative to GDP and the continued expansion in non-developmental expenditure. Rising interest payments--continuing the trend of recent years--and higher outlays on administrative services and pensions were the main contributing factors to the increase in non-developmental expenditure. On the tax reform front, there has been some progress toward a more rational system of indirect taxation, including agreement by state finance ministers to fix floor rates for states’ sales taxes and the partial introduction of the VAT by some state governments.12 After falling sharply to 2.6 percent of GDP in 1994/95, the deficit of central public enterprises came down further to 2.1 percent of GDP, mainly the result of an additional decline in investment spending by these enterprises.

The budget for 1996/97 targets a reduction in the central government deficit to 5 percent of GDP.13 With state government budgets implying a combined deficit of 2.8 percent of GDP but higher public enterprise deficits resulting from an anticipated decline in operating surpluses, the public sector deficit would decline to 8.3 percent of GDP. The bulk of the envisaged fiscal correction at the central level is to come from higher revenue (0.5 percent of GDP). A revived divestment program is expected to raise Rs 50 billion (0.4 percent of GDP), although other non-tax revenues would decline relative to GDP. Tax revenues are to rise by 0.4 percent of GDP, half of which would reflect the estimated impact of new revenue measures and half the cyclical impact of the strong economy. Expenditure is targeted to decline by 0.2 percent of GDP, mainly through slower growth in non-interest current expenditure. The primary deficit of the central government is budgeted to fall to 0.2 percent of GDP, the lowest level in more than ten years.

On the tax reform front, further steps were taken to expand the tax base and reduce tax rates.

  • The surcharge on the corporate income tax was halved to 7.5 percent, and a minimum corporate tax on book profits was introduced in an effort to bring into the tax net zero-tax companies benefitting from extensive deductions and exemptions.14 Sick units and companies engaged in the power and infrastructure sectors will be exempted from the minimum corporate tax. The minimum corporate tax is expected to boost revenue by Rs 20 billion (about 0.2 percent of GDP) in 1996/97.
  • The MODVAT system was extended to the textile sector, implying a full coverage of manufacturing under the system. In an effort to restrict the misuse of MODVAT credits, the issue of MODVAT invoices by dealers was restricted.15
  • Customs duties were reduced on a wide range of capital goods and intermediate inputs.16 Although a 2 percent surcharge on imports was introduced, which effectively raised the peak tariff rate to 52 percent, the effective import-weighted tariff rate (including oil imports) is estimated at 22.7 percent in 1996/97, down from 25.2 percent in 1995/96.
  • Regarding personal income tax, the rate applying to the lower income bracket was reduced from 20 percent to 15 percent and the standard deduction for low-income employees was raised.
  • Additional services were brought into the indirect tax net, including advertising, radio paging, and courier services.
  • Some new tax exemptions were introduced and others were extended. These include new tax holidays for firms developing infrastructure, income tax exemption for funds to finance such development, larger exemptions for saving in the form of life insurance and pensions, and additional mortgage relief for homeowners.

On the expenditure side, key measures in the budget included:

  • Higher allocations for spending on the social sectors, infrastructure, and the fertilizer subsidy.17 Programs for infrastructure financing and the provision of rural credit and basic minimum services to the poor are to be expanded.18
  • The Public Distribution System (PDS) is to be restructured to provide cheaper food grains to the very poor. Although a timetable for the restructuring, and the associated costs, have yet to be worked out, the Government is considering providing food grains at half the market price to all people below the poverty line, which would imply a significant increase in the food subsidy, unless it were combined with a substantial cutback in access by those above the poverty line.19
  • Expenditure on wages and salaries is expected to increase substantially in 1996/97, as a result of pay awards based on upcoming recommendations of the Fifth Pay Commission.20 A budgetary provision of Rs 50 billion (Rs 40 billion in the Union budget, and Rs 10 billion in the Railways budget), or 0.4 percent of GDP, has been made to reflect the impact of the Pay Commission’s recommendations.
  • Central assistance to state plans was increased by Rs 25 billion (0.2 percent of GDP) to support the provision of basic minimum services. States have also been given greater flexibility in the selection and implementation of centrally-sponsored schemes, in line with the Government’s proposals in its Common Minimum Program to delegate greater spending responsibility and flexibility to states.

Finally, the budget speech announced that a number of commissions would be set up to advance the process of fiscal reform. In particular:

  • A Divestment Commission has been established to develop a comprehensive divestment program for the central public enterprises, to determine the extent and modes of divestment, and to monitor the process of divestment. So far, 40 public enterprises have been referred to the Commission.
  • An Expenditure Commission is to examine issues of expenditure control and management, and the level and composition of spending.
  • A Tariff Commission is to be established to examine the level and structure of tariffs, devise a timetable for the removal of quantitative restrictions, and advise on other issues related to WTO jurisdiction, such as trade in financial services.

In addition, the budget speech signaled the Government’s intention to address the remaining recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission relating to sharing central taxes with the states from a single divisible pool using a uniform rate.21 Implementation of these recommendations would require constitutional amendments.

IV. Monetary developments

With a high fiscal deficit, monetary policy has played the central role in macro-economic stabilization in recent years. In conducting policy, the Reserve Bank has continued to rely on broad money targeting as its basic policy indicator. However, as monetary and exchange market developments have become increasingly interlinked with the opening of the economy, the RBI has paid greater attention to exchange rate and interest rate developments

In response to the surge in foreign private capital inflows during late 1993/94 through late 1994/95, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) intervened in the foreign exchange market in order to prevent an appreciation of the rupee. Notwithstanding substantial open market operations to partially offset the resulting rise in net foreign assets, broad money accelerated to 18 percent during 1993/94 and 1994/95, which contributed to the pickup in inflation.22

To dampen inflationary pressures, the stance of monetary policy was tightened beginning in late 1994/95. The cash reserve ratio was increased from 14 percent to 15 percent in December 1994 and several measures were taken to discourage inflows of non-resident foreign currency deposits. The RBI sought to maintain this tightened stance during 1995/96, while responding to several shifts in the policy environment. The external situation weakened, which prompted a substantial drainage of liquidity from the system as international reserves declined. RBI credit to government expanded rapidly in the early months of the year, as the authorities intervened in primary auctions to contain increases in interest rates on government securities and the Government made greater resort to ad hoc treasury bills issued directly to the RBI. The RBI also eased refinance limits against government securities in September 1995 and lowered the CRR by 1 percentage point during November/December 1995. The end result was that broad money growth slowed to about 15 percent in 1995/96, in line with the announced target range of 15-16 percent (Table 5 and Chart 3).

Table 5.India: Monetary Survey, 1992/93-1996/97
March 31August
1992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
(In billions of rupees)
Monetary authorities
Reserve money1,1081,3871,6931,9431,842
Net domestic assets8818729461,2031,044
Net foreign assets227514747741798
(Change in relation to reserve money)
Reserve money11.325.222.114.84.7
Net domestic assets7.5-0.85.315.20.1
Net foreign assets3.826.016.8-0.44.6
(In billions of rupees)
Monetary survey
Broad money (M3)3,6684,3445,3146,0186,307
Currency with the public6838231,0071,1831,207
Bank deposits2,9723,4964,2744,8035,041
Nonbank deposits at RBI1325343360
Net domestic assets of banking system3,4193,8184,5545,2475,478
Domestic credit3,9644,4175,1515,9836,134
Net credit to Government1,7622,0392,2242,5742,736
Credit to commercial sector2,2012,3782,9273,4093,398
Other items (net)-545-599-598-736-655
Net foreign assets of banking system250526760772829
(Percentage change)
Broad money (M3)15.718.422.3 1/13.2 1/16.2
Currency with the public11.720.622.317.413.7
Bank deposits16.517.622.212.417.4
(Change in relation to beginning period broad money)
Net domestic assets14.510.916.913.014.7
Domestic credit15.812.416.915.614.4
Net credit to Government5.77.54.36.66.2
Commercial sector10.14.812.69.18.2
Other items, net-1.3-1.5---2.60.3
Net foreign assets1.27.55.40.21.5
Memorandum items:
Flow of credit to Government (Rs bn) 2/180277185350162
Money multiplier3.313.133.143.103.42

The end-March data for March 1994/95 and 1995/96 contain a surge in deposits associated with the reporting date. The percent changes for broad money in 1994/95 and 1995/96 using mid-March data are 17 7 percent and 14.9 percent, respectively.

Cumulative flow from start of fiscal year.

The end-March data for March 1994/95 and 1995/96 contain a surge in deposits associated with the reporting date. The percent changes for broad money in 1994/95 and 1995/96 using mid-March data are 17 7 percent and 14.9 percent, respectively.

Cumulative flow from start of fiscal year.

CHART 3INDIA MONEY, INFLATION AND INTEREST RATES, 1991/92 – 1996/97

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities, and International Financial Statistics.

Although growth in bank credit to the commercial sector remained virtually unchanged at 18 percent during 1995/96 (based on mid-March data), a decline in the growth of other sources of private financing exacerbated the tightening of credit conditions (Appendix Table 24). The growth in term lending by the all-India financial institutions fell to 14 percent in 1995/96, down from 24 percent in 1994/95, as these institutions faced higher costs in raising funding. Equity markets also were relatively weak from mid-1994/95 through most of 1995/96, reflecting rising domestic interest rates as well as structural problems in the market.23 As a result, new primary issues declined by almost a third in 1995/96. The weak conditions in the domestic capital market and the fallout from the Mexico crisis also contributed to a decline in new issues of Global Depository Receipts and a slowdown in foreign institutional investment inflows.

The combination of strong demand for investment funds, a temporary slowdown in foreign private capital inflows, and the continued heavy borrowing demands of the public sector led to a sharp increase in both real and nominal interest rates during 1995/96 (Chart 4). Prime lending rates were raised by 1 1/2 to 2 percentage points to 16.5-20 percent by February 1996, while effective lending rates were reportedly 2-3 percentage points above the published prime rates.24 Interest rates on 91-day Treasury bills increased from 9 1/2 percent in late-1994/95 to 13.0 percent in 1995/96. Rates on longer term securities also rose, albeit more moderately, and the yield curve flattened.

CHART 4INDIA FINANCIAL INDICATORS, 1994–96

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

1/ State Bank of India.

The increasing pressures on interest rates highlighted the growing tensions between fiscal and monetary policy. During much of 1995/96, the agreement between the RBI and the Ministry of Finance to limit borrowing through ad hoc treasury bills was not observed.25 Borrowing through ad hoes averaged Rs. 97 billion during 1995/96, and was well above the intra-year limit of Rs 90 billion in 6 of the 12 months. Borrowing through ad hoes was reduced to Rs 59 billion at year-end as the RBI subscribed Rs 55 billion in a special securities issue at a market-related rate.

The Reserve Bank’s monetary and foreign exchange market operations became increasingly integrated in 1995/96. Several periods of heavy foreign exchange sales resulted in a sharp tightening in the domestic money market, with call money rates peaking at 85 percent in November 1995. The RBI used repurchase agreements to partially offset the liquidity impact of the foreign exchange operations. To provide incentives to attract non-resident deposits, the Reserve Bank also eliminated the cash reserve requirements on the non-repatriable foreign currency deposit schemes, halved the requirements on other non-resident deposits, and raised the ceiling on the foreign currency deposit rates from 8 percent to 10 percent.

Concerned with signs that tight liquidity conditions were dampening economic activity, the RBI significantly eased monetary policy in early 1996/97. The CRR was reduced from 14 percent to 13 percent in May 1996 and again to 12 percent in early July. The liquidity impact of the latter reduction was partially offset by eliminating the refinance facility against government securities, although little of the available refinance was being utilized at that time. A further contributor to easing monetary conditions in the early part of the year was a sharp increase in net RBI credit to government through July 1996--including a Rs 200 billion increase in ad hoc treasury bills. However, much of this buildup was subsequently reversed; by September 1996, RBI credit was reduced to Rs 57 billion, with a decline in borrowing through ad hoes to Rs 34 billion.

The easing of the policy stance has been reflected in a pickup in broad money growth to about 16 1/2 percent in September 1996 while short-term interest rates have declined sharply. In particular, interest rates on short-term government securities have come down by about 250 basis points since April 1996 to 10 1/2 percent at end-September, with little RBI intervention in the primary market. By contrast, long-term government bond rates have declined only modestly, despite considerable purchases by the RBI and primary dealers, and the yield curve has steepened substantially.

For 1996/97 as a whole, the Reserve Bank has set a target for broad money growth of 15 1/2-16 percent, aimed at containing inflation to 6-7 percent and sustaining continued buoyant real growth. The RBI indicated in its April 1996 credit policy statement that, as a part of the commitment to the ongoing process of financial liberalization, it would consider further reductions in the CRR, combined with a rationalization of the RBFs refinance facilities, as a medium-term objective. Greater reliance would also be placed on open market operations in conducting monetary policy. The RBI recently recommended in its 1995/96 Annual Report that ad hoes treasury bills be replaced with ways and means advances--which would be used to accommodate temporary mismatches between the inflows and outflows in the Government’s accounts--and that a statutory ceiling be imposed on public debt.

Significant progress has been made in several areas of financial sector reform over the past year.26 A number of steps were taken to deregulate interest rates. The ceiling on deposit rates was removed for deposits with terms of over two years in October 1995 and for terms of 1-2 years in July 1996.27 In addition, the minimum maturity of time deposits was reduced from 45 to 30 days. Since October 1994, banks have been free to set rates on loans greater than Rs 200,000, although lending rates on smaller loans are still regulated.28 In July 1996, the RBI fully liberalized lending rates in the regional rural development banks and freed deposit rates for non-banking financial companies that fully comply with RBI guidelines.

While the stipulated statutory liquidity requirement (SLR) on incremental deposits remained unchanged at 25 percent, the average effective SLR declined further to about 28 percent by end-1995/96 (from 30 percent a year ago), reflecting expansion in the commercial banks’ balance sheets. However, the requirement that 40 percent of total lending be directed to the priority sectors, along with the sub-ceilings on agricultural and small-scale industrial credit, remains unchanged.

Further steps were taken during the past year to reform India’s capital markets.

  • To develop the government securities market, the RBI established guidelines for a primary dealer system in March 1995. So far, six primary dealers have been approved and the new system went into operation in February 1996.29 To catalyze the new system, in July 1996 the RBI offered the primary dealers significant commissions to participate in the auctions, which has resulted in substantial intermediation through primary dealers and contributed to a marked increase in secondary market activity. A delivery-versus-payments system for government securities was also established in July 1995 to improve efficiency and reduce settlement risk. More recently, the RBI announced its intentions to introduce a system of satellite dealers in the government securities market.
  • In the stock market, the Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)--the chief regulator of India’s capital markets--strengthened eligibility and disclosure norms to improve the quality of new primary issues and introduced a number of regulations regarding fraudulent and unfair trading practices. Screen-based trading--which has now been introduced in the major stock exchanges and is scheduled to be introduced in the remaining exchanges shortly--will enhance transparency and facilitate market surveillance, A system of share depositories is being set up to provide more efficient and accurate clearing and settlement.
  • To encourage the development of debt markets, beginning in 1995 the RBI permitted private sector institutions to set up money market mutual funds (MMMFs), and in 1996 extended access to these funds to corporations and finance companies.

V. External sector developments

Following two years of surplus, the balance of payments registered a deficit of $1.2 billion in 1995/96, reflecting both current and capital account developments (Table 6). The current account deficit widened, as rapid import growth more than offset a strong export performance. On the capital account side, portfolio equity inflows slowed considerably, while there were sizable other capital outflows. Against this background, the rupee depreciated significantly against the U.S. dollar starting in mid-1995--following two and a half years in which the exchange rate had been virtually unchanged--despite considerable intervention. Foreign exchange reserves fell to $17 billion (equivalent to five months of imports) at end-1995/96 from $20.8 billion at end-1994/95.

Table 6.India: Balance of Payments, 1991/92-1995/96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1991/921992/931993/94Prel. Est.

1994/95
Prel. Est.

1995/96
Current account balance-1,178-3,526-1,158-2,701-5,487
Trade balance-2,798-4,368-2,386-4,983-8,938
Exports, f.o.b.18,26618,86922,68326,85732,467
Imports, c.i.f. 1/21,06423,23725,06931,84041,405
Nonfactor services balance1,2071,128535-407-34
Receipts5,0224,7166,2267,2847,340
Payments3,8153,5885,4497,6917,374
Net investment income-3,830-3,422-3,270-3,983-4,479
Credits2213772981,1041,000
Debits4,0513,7994,3005,0875,479
Interest3,5453,4773,8184,1304,500
Dividends506322482957979
Transfers, net4,2433,1374,1956,6727,896
Private transfers, net3,7832,7733,5956,2007,480
Grants460363368472416
Capital account3,9682,9669,8358,8064,278
Direct investment, net1393415861,3142,008
Portfolio investment, net--2143,6493,5812,214
FII--11,6651,5032,009
GDR issues and other--2131,9842,078205
External assistance3,0371,8591,9011,434780
Disbursements4,3663,3023,4763,1922,978
Amortization1,3291,4431,5751,7582,198
Commercial borrowing 2/1,456-3586071,029527
Disbursements3,1331,1672,9133,8413,876
Amortization1,6771,5252,3062,8123,349
Short-term credit, net-515-1,079-769330160
NRI deposits, net2902,0011,2058471,365
Rupee debt-1,240-878-1,053-1,050-963
Other capital8018663,7091,321-1,813
Overall balance2,790-5608,6776,105-1,209
IMF, net7861,288187-1,146-1,710
Change in gross reserves (increase -):-3,576-728-8,864-4,9592,919
Memorandum items:
Foreign exchange reserves
Outstanding at market exchange rate5,6316,43415,06820,80917,044
In months of imports3.23.37.27.84.9
Current account (percent of GDP)-0.5-1.8-0.5-1.0-1.7
External debt (percent of GDP)33.933.736.332.927.9
Debt service ratio (percent)30.228.626.526.426.2
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes interest on trade finance. Excludes personal imports of gold and silver.

Includes Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs) and other Euro bond issues.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes interest on trade finance. Excludes personal imports of gold and silver.

Includes Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs) and other Euro bond issues.

The current account deficit increased to 1.7 percent of GDP in 1995/96 from 1.0 percent in the previous year, as import growth accelerated to nearly 34 percent (in dollar terms), reflecting both rising domestic demand and the impact of the earlier trade reforms.30 Growth in non-oil imports was particularly strong, owing to higher imports of capital goods (e.g., machinery and transport equipment) as well as an expansion in imported inputs for export production (including chemicals, non-ferrous metals, gems, and precious stones).

Exports increased by over 21 percent (in dollar terms) in 1995/96--the third consecutive year of strong growth. As a result, the share of exports in GDP rose to 10 percent in 1995/96, up from 6 percent in 1990/91. While growth of manufactured exports--the main contributing factor to the export recovery during 1993/94-1994/95--moderated somewhat in 1995/96, agricultural exports rose by 44 percent, largely owing to a fourfold increase in rice exports (Appendix Table 26). The latter reflected the liberalization of limits on rice exports in October 1994 and the removal of the export minimum price restrictions in response to large food stocks and another bumper crop.

Turning to the capital account, the slowdown in portfolio equity inflows that started in the fall of 1994 continued for most of 1995/96, amid pre-election uncertainties and the fallout from the financial crisis in Mexico (Chart 5). The drop in issues of Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) was particularly sharp. By contrast, foreign direct investment continued to rise, reaching $2 billion in 1995/96, reflecting a growing pipeline of approved projects. Gross external commercial borrowing (ECB) rose as ECB guidelines were relaxed, but this was largely offset by higher repayments. Net external assistance continued to decline in 1995/96, reflecting rising repayments and slower project disbursements. Other capital flows registered a sizable deficit in 1995/96, possibly responding to the unsettled exchange market conditions.

CHART 5INDIA SELECTED EXTERNAL INDICATORS, 1994–1996

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

1/ Decrease indicates depreciation.

2/ Three month moving average.

3/ Portfolio investment by foreign institutional investors (FIIs).

The balance of payments situation strengthened in the first five months of 1996/97, and foreign exchange reserves increased moderately to $18 billion by end-August 1996. Both export and import growth slowed-to 9.7 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively-in the first five months of the year.31 In particular, non-oil imports fell by 3.2 percent, which appears to have reflected some weakening of investment demand as well as delays in imports in anticipation of a lowering of customs duties in the 1996/97 budget announced in July. On the capital account, inflows from foreign institutional investors (FII)--which had begun to recover in late 1995/96--maintained a strong pace through the first four months of 1996/97--although there was some slowdown in August. There were several large new GDR issues in July-September 1996 (totaling about $800 million), and a number of further issues are in the pipeline.

During most of 1993/94-1994/95, the exchange value of the rupee vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar was broadly stable (Chart 6). In response to the large capital inflows during this period, the authorities effectively set a ceiling on the rate by purchasing foreign exchange at Rs 31.37 per U.S. dollar. However, the exchange rate started to come under downward pressure in early 1995/96, reflecting the widening current account deficit and the slowdown in portfolio capital inflows. Pressures were exacerbated as depreciation of the rupee, starting in July 1995, triggered expectations of a further depreciation and prompted speculation in the market via shifts in leads and lags in trade financing. Initially, the RBI refrained from intervening in the market. However, as pressures mounted in September-October 1995, the authorities responded by selling foreign exchange in the market, supported by measures to tighten domestic liquidity and the introduction of a 15 percent interest surcharge on import finance. Following another speculative attack in February 1996--when the rate fell to Rs 38 per U.S. dollar--the authorities took further steps to reduce trade financing leads and lags, including an increase of the interest surcharge on import financing to 25 percent, eliminating post-export refinance in foreign currency terms, and rationalizing the interest rate structure for rupee export credit, which had encouraged delays in repatriating export receipts.32 Since then, the exchange rate had traded in a relatively narrow range. The interest surcharge on import finance was rescinded in July 1996.

Despite the significant depreciation of the rupee against the U.S. dollar, there was only a 3 percent depreciation in the nominal effective rate during 1995/96, as the U.S. dollar strengthened against other major currencies. The partner country inflation differential narrowed, reflecting the deceleration in Indian inflation. In July 1996, the real effective exchange rate was close to its level of March 1993, following the unification of India’s exchange rate system.

CHART 6INDIA EXCHANGE RATE DEVELOPMENTS, 1991–1996

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities; IMF, Information Notice System and International Financial Statistics.

Despite the increase in current account deficits since 1993/94, the shift toward non-debt creating capital inflows since 1991 has contributed to an improvement in the profile of external debt. The ratio of total external debt to GDP has gradually declined from 33.9 percent in 1991/92 to 28.4 percent in 1995/96, with the external debt service ratio falling steadily to 26.2 percent in 1995/96 (Appendix Table 30). Since 1996/97 is the last year of peak repayments of exceptional borrowing incurred during the 1990/91 crisis (including India Development Bonds and purchases from the IMF), the debt service ratio is likely to fall further next year.

Substantial progress has been made in lowering import tariffs in recent years. According to World Bank estimates, the average (import-weighted) tariff has been brought down from 64 percent in 1992/93 to 23 percent in 1996/97 (Table 7). Progress has also been made toward removing quantitative restrictions on imports. Under a phased approach, specified commodities on the negative list are first allowed to be imported through special import licenses (SILs) before shifting these commodities to the open general license (OGL) list. SILs are granted to exporters in proportion to their export earnings and are tradeable. As of March 1996, about 60 percent of total imports (measured by tariff lines) was freely imported. In August 1996, a further 62 items (equivalent to 0.6 percent of total tariff lines) were shifted from the restricted list to the SIL list. There were no major changes during 1995/96 and early in 1996/97 to quantitative restrictions on exports, which are primarily on agricultural goods and minerals.

Table 7.India: Tariff Reform(End of period; in percent, unless otherwise indicated)
1992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
Maximum tariff11085655052
Average tariff (import weighted)6447332523
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and the World Bank.
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and the World Bank.

India formally accepted the obligations of Article VIII, Sections 2, 3, and 4 of the Fund’s Articles of Agreement in August 1994. Since that time, foreign exchange has been freely provided for payments of most current account transactions, although a number of restrictions remained in place at that time. Progress has been made in eliminating some of these remaining restrictions: (i) restrictions on repatriating current investment income have been eliminated starting with income earned in the 1996/97 tax year, and (ii) the multiple currency practice associated with existing exchange rate guarantees on non-resident deposits is being phased out as deposits under the scheme mature.33

Other restrictions which have remained in place are: (i) restrictions on the transfers of past income on investment by non-resident Indians and overseas commercial bodies; (ii) an Indo-Russian debt agreement under which debt service on the agreement can only be used for the purchase of Indian exports; (iii) bilateral trade and payments agreements with Bulgaria, the former German Democratic Republic, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and the former Yugoslavia; and (iv) a dividend balancing requirement under which transfers abroad of dividends by nonresident investors in consumer goods industries must be balanced by export earnings, for a period of seven years from the date of commencement of commercial production.

The new Government has taken a number of steps to reduce restrictions on capital account transactions. For GDRs, the restriction limiting the frequency of issues to once per year was lifted; the requirement of a three-year track record of good performance was eliminated for those issues intended to fund infrastructure projects; the end-use requirement for project-related expenditure was eased to allow use of 25 percent of proceeds for corporate restructuring; and financial institutions were permitted to raise funds through GDR issues for on-lending purposes. FII investment in unlisted companies has been allowed and the ceiling on investment in a company by individual FIIs was raised from 5 percent to 10 percent of its capital. The ceiling on aggregate FII investment in a company remained unchanged at 24 percent.

The overall ECB ceiling was raised from $6 billion in 1995/96 to $7.9 billion in 1996/97. ECB regulations were also relaxed for infrastructure projects. The ceiling on borrowing was raised to 35 percent of project cost (compared with a norm of 20-30 percent); the end-use requirement and the three-year establishment record requirement were dropped; and the minimum average maturity requirement for loans of more than $15 million was reduced from seven to five years. In addition, the minimum average maturity of ECB by development finance institutions for amounts for non-infrastructure projects exceeding $15 million was reduced to five years and on-lending for rupee expenditure was permitted.

To enhance the efficiency in the foreign exchange market, in January 1996, the RBI permitted commercial banks to decide their own overnight open position limits, subject to RBI approval. Subsequently, in April 1996 banks were allowed to determine their own aggregate gap limit, subject to RBI approval, and to initiate cross currency options in overseas markets.

APPENDIX I India: Relations with the World Bank Group

India is one of the largest borrowers from the World Bank Group. The Bank’s program includes large ongoing economic and sector work (ESW), and a diversified lending program. Besides the annual Country Economic Memoranda (CEMs), the ESW includes recently completed or planned reports on reform issues (trade, financial sector, intergovernmental transfers); on sector-level reforms (agriculture, power, transport, education, health, nutrition); and on poverty. The 1996 CEM covered the fiscal and structural constraints to achieving high sustained growth, with particular attention on agriculture and infrastructure. Lending from IBRD, IDA, and IFC seeks to support the ongoing process of reform, with particular emphasis on reforms at the state level, and acceleration of human resource development. No adjustment operations are envisaged at this time.

Financial operations since 1989/90 are summarized below:

(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Indian FY 1/1989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95
Commitments2,986.02,186.02,861.02,197.01,845.92,065.7
IBRD2,126.01,243.01,482.0928.0720.0937.0
IDA860.0943.01,379.01,269.01,125.71,128.7
Disbursements2,011.01,980.72,184.22,037.71,885.71,707.5
IBRD1,445.31,219.11,230.8852.11,216.4741.3
IDA565.7761.6953.41,185.6669.3966.2
Repayments449.5585.7668.7788.7932.21,020.7
IBRD351.7471.8527.4633.5758.1827.0
IDA97.8113.9141.3155.2174.1193.7
Debt outstanding and disbursed19,135.320,996.122,662.024,406.025,848.428,786.0
IBRD6,614.67,684.68,458.69,066.99,870.311,119.9
IDA12,520.713,311.514,203.415,339.115,978.117,666.1
Source: Data provided by the World Bank.

The Indian financial year ends on March 31.

Source: Data provided by the World Bank.

The Indian financial year ends on March 31.

APPENDIX II India: Relations with the Asian Development Bank

The Asian Development Bank (AsDB) operations in India began in 1986. Cumulative commitments totaled $5.3 billion (net of cancellation) as of December 31, 1995 for 32 public sector loans and 9 private sector loans (the latter without government guarantee). These funds have been provided from the Bank’s ordinary capital resources (OCR).1/ Also, AsDB has approved 16 equity investments and a line of equity. The AsDB’s lending and equity activities are summarized below.

(In millions of U.S. dollars, as of December 31, 1995)
Calendar

Year
OCR Loan

Commitments
EquityDisbursements
1986250----
1987394812
1988497356
1989504381
19907172205
1991924--496
1992874--394
19938781223
199415018510
199563045600
Total5,818802,577
Source: Data provided by the Asian Development Bank.
Source: Data provided by the Asian Development Bank.

The AsDB operational strategy focuses on promoting efficiency and higher sustainable economic growth to improve employment opportunities and income, while reducing poverty. The Bank has supported policy reforms to promote the private sector as well as infrastructure (physical, social and financial) development through private and public sector investments. At the sectoral level, priority is given to energy, transport, and communications. The Bank has a state-level focus for a portion of its operational program.

STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Table 1.India: GDP at Factor Cost by Sector of Origin, 1990/91-1995/96
1990/911991/921992/93Prov.

1993/94
Est.

1994/95
Est.

1995/96
(In billions of rupees, at current prices)
Agriculture1,480.01,727.71,930.42,217.52,659.1
Mining and quarrying117.9128.0145.9169.5188.7
Manufacturing891.6963.01,110.01,234.81,484.8
Electricity, gas, and water104.6127.2161.0188.9225.1
Construction286.2322.5366.6412.1489.6
Trade, hotels, and restaurants618.8708.1827.9971.71,146.0
Transport and communications339.1410.0491.1563.3655.2
Finance389.0490.6519.1634.0729.5
Community services550.9650.6749.8839.3963.0
GDP at factor cost4,778.15,527.76,301.87,231.18,541.0
(In billions of rupees, at constant 1980/81 prices)
Agriculture656.5641.2680.2702.3736.9754.6
Mining and quarrying42.143.644.145.947.951.3
Manufacturing448.6432.0449.9469.3511.5584.4
Electricity, gas, and water48.052.657.061.166.071.6
Construction98.3100.5103.8106.1113.6117.8
Trade, hotels, and restaurants265.8268.3286.5310.3334.8368.6
Transport and communications111.6117.8124.3131.4142.3155.0
Finance217.0239.7246.9267.9279.4294.5
Community services234.6244.1256.2266.3277.7288.9
GDP at factor cost2,122.52,139.82,248.92,360.62,510.12,686.7
(Percentage change at constant prices)
Memorandum items:
GDP at factor cost5.40.85.15.06.37.0
Agriculture 1/4.2-2.05.83.34.92.7
Industry 2/7.0-1.64.44.28.612.0
Services5.24.95.16.86.07.0
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes mining and quarrying.

Includes manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, and construction.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes mining and quarrying.

Includes manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, and construction.

Table 2.India: GDP at Market Prices by Expenditure Components, 1990/91-1994/95
1990/911991/921992/93Prov.

1993/94
Est.

1994/95
(In billions of rupees, at current prices)
Private consumption3,303.73,818.94,301.84,894.05,633.4
Government consumption617.8694.6786.0896.81,012.5
Gross fixed capital formation1,240.01,365.01,587.41,722.52,130.6
Construction583.6669.3755.1821.2970.2
Machinery and equipment656.4695.7832.3901.31,160.4
Change in stocks111.535.6108.1-12.458.6
Exports of goods and services406.4562.5673.1891.4
Imports of goods and services487.0562.5730.0880.0
GDP at market prices 1/5,355.36,168.07,053.38,010.39,456.2
(In billions of rupees, at constant 1980/81 prices)
Private consumption1,554.51,581.81,645.91,715.41,789.9
Government consumption260.6259.3267.8284.1292.6
Gross fixed capital formation510.9490.5524.3541.9622.1
Construction187.6191.9197.1196.5213.8
Machinery and equipment323.3298.6327.2345.4408.3
Change in stocks57.915.944.4-6.319.5
GDP at market prices2,402.42,412.62,539.82,638.72,805.0
(Percentage change at constant prices)
Memorandum items:
Consumption3.71.43.94.54.2
Private3.81.84.14.24.3
Government3.3-0.53.36.13.0
Gross fixed capital formation9.9-4.06.93.414.8
Construction9.92.32.7-0.38.8
Machinery and equipment9.9-7.69.65.618.2
GDP at market prices5.70.45.33.96.3
GDP at factor cost5.40.85.15.06.3
GDP deflator at market prices10.914.78.69.311.1
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes statistical discrepancy.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes statistical discrepancy.

Table 3.India: Savings and Investment, 1990/91-1994/95(In percent of GDP at market prices)
1990/911991/921992/93Prov.

1993/94
Est.

1994/95
Gross domestic savings23.622.821.221.424.4
Private sector22.620.919.620.822.7
Public sector1.01.91.50.51.7
Gross capital formation27.023.423.121.625.2
Private sector 1/15.513.515.112.814.3
Public sector9.79.28.98.68.8
Savings-investment gap-3.4-0.5-2.0-0.3-0.8
Private sector7.17.34.58.18.4
Public sector-8.7-7.2-7.4-8.0-7.1
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes errors and omissions.

Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes errors and omissions.

Table 4.India: Industrial Production Index, 1990/91-1995/96(Annual percentage change on a gross basis; 1980/81 = 100)
Weight1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
All industries1,0008.20.62.36.09.412.1
Manufacturing7719.0-0.82.26.19.813.7
Food53-12.64.8-1.6-8.713.613.6
Beverages and tobacco161.72.95.921.3-4.820.0
Cotton textiles12312.98.08.06.9-2.92.3
Jute textiles204.3-10.6-4.218.6-10.50.3
Textile products8-32.0-5.8-22.0-3.27.113.5
Wood products412.1-6.23.04.63.116.2
Paper products329.12.63.96.614.510.9
Leather products53.2-6.73.58.83.76.6
Rubber products40-0.3-1.11.51.03.28.1
Chemicals products1252.62.86.07.69.511.5
Nonmetallic minerals301.76.21.84.58.012.7
Base metals and alloy9810.55.70.433.1-4.34.7
Metals except machinery230.4-7.0-6.41.617.518.5
Machine tools628.5-1.9-1.24.49.421.3
Electric machinery5822.7-12.4-2.0-4.932.622.8
Transport equipment646.5-0.75.05.313.223.5
Other9-3.5-16.14.2-5.11.010.5
Mining and quarrying1154.50.60.53.57.36.9
Electricity generation1147.88.55.07.48.58.1
Memorandum items:
Industrial product in index
classified by use:
Basic goods3943.86.22.69.55.68.5
Capital goods16417.4-8.6-0.1-4.124.819.4
Intermediate goods2056.1-2.25.411.73.710.8
Consumer goods industries23710.41.51.84.08.712.8
Durables2614.8-10.7-0.716.110.238.5
Nondurables2119.44.72.41.48.46.4
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.
Table 5.India: Agricultural Production and Yields, 1990/91-1994/951 1/(Production in millions of tons, unless otherwise indicated; yield in kg per hectare)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Est.

1994/95
Production
Foodgrains176.4168.4179.5184.3191.3
Rice74.374.772.980.381.1
Wheat55.155.757.259.465.5
Coarse grains32.726.036.630.830.4
Pulses14.312.012.813.314.1
Oilseeds 2/18.618.620.121.521.4
Cotton 3/9.89.711.410.712.1
Jute 4/7.98.97.57.48.3
Sugarcane241.0254.0228.0229.7271.2
Tea 5/742.0704.0
Yields
Foodgrains1,3801,3821,4571,5011,547
Rice1,7401,7511,7441,8881,921
Wheat2,2812,3942,3272,3802,553
Maize1,5181,3761,6761,6021,493
Pulses578533573548603
Oilseeds771719797799848
Cotton225216257249260
Jute1,8331,8371,8571,9071,983
Sugarcane65,39565,06963,84367,12071,099
Tea1,7701,678
Memorandum items:
Production of:
Kharif foodgrains99.491.6101.5100.4100.6
Rabi foodgrains77.076.378.083.990.5
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Relates to crop years, July-June.

Nine major oilseeds.

In million bales of 170 kg each.

In million bales of 180 kg each.

In thousands of metric tons.

Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Relates to crop years, July-June.

Nine major oilseeds.

In million bales of 170 kg each.

In million bales of 180 kg each.

In thousands of metric tons.

Table 6.India: Energy Sector Statistics, 1990/91-1994/95(In millions of metric tons)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Prov.

1994/95
Crude petroleum
Domestic production33.030.427.027.032.2
Imports20.724.029.230.827.3
Refinery throughput51.851.453.554.356.3
Stocks at end-period3.2
Petroleum products
Domestic production46.648.350.451.152.9
Net imports6.06.57.68.110.7
Imports8.79.411.312.114.0
Exports2.72.93.74.03.3
Domestic consumption55.057.058.960.865.5
Stocks at end-period4.2
Coal
Output211.7229.3238.3246.0253.8
Stocks at end-period42.948.751.350.746.4
Electricity
Power generation 1/264.3287.0301.1323.5351.0
Thermal186.5208.7224.5247.7262.9
Hydro71.772.869.870.482.5
Nuclear6.15.56.85.45.6
Memorandum item:
Plant load factor for thermal power (in percent)53.855.357.161.060.0
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey; and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Utilities only.

Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey; and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Utilities only.

Table 7.India: Employment and Labor Statistics, 1990/91-1994/95(In millions of persons, end of period)
Estimated
1991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
Employment in the organized sector 1/26.727.027.227.427.5
Public sector19.019.219.419.419.5
Central Government(3.4)(3.4)(3.4)(3.4)(3.4)
State Governments(7.1)(7.2)(7.3)(7.3)(7.4)
Public enterprises(6.2)(6.4)(6.5)(6.5)(6.5)
Local authorities(2.3)(2.2)(2.2)(2.2)(2.2)
Private sector7.77.87.87.98.0
Agriculture(0.9)(0.9)(0.9)(0.9)(0.9)
Manufacturing(4.5)(4.6)(4.5)(4.6)(4.7)
Other(2.3)(2.3)(2.4)(2.4)(2.4)
Number of job seekers (end-December)36.336.836.336.736.7
Number of work days lost through industrial disputes 2/24.623.020.517.216.6
Strikes19.66.85.36.56.3
Lockouts15.016.215.212.710.4
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

All establishments in the public sector and nonagricultural private establishments with ten or more employees.

For industrial disputes involving ten or more workers.

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

All establishments in the public sector and nonagricultural private establishments with ten or more employees.

For industrial disputes involving ten or more workers.

Table 8.India: Price Developments, 1990/91-1995/96
Weight1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
(Annual percentage change; period average)
Wholesale price index100.010.313.710.18.410.37.7
Primary articles32.313.018.17.56.912.97.4
Cereals6.87.923.213.65.511.46.1
Crude oil and natural gas4.38.51.41.717.57.00.9
Fruits and vegetables4.119.723.97.83.42.612.0
Oilseeds3.928.720.4-1.9-1.317.01.2
Fuel and power10.712.313.214.115.56.91.3
Oil products6.719.316.113.69.65.10.1
Electricity2.77.110.911.827.810.84.8
Manufactures57.08.411.310.97.810.59.0
Sugar, etc.4.10.25.112.232.19.1-5.7
Edible oils2.425.819.1-0.4-4.010.17.6
Cotton textiles6.17.914.49.08.920.211.6
Chemicals, etc.7.45.613.914.47.911.97.4
Iron and steel2.46.75.59.68.57.07.6
Nonelectrical machinery3.39.815.810.61.47.76.7
Electrical machinery3.06.715.410.75.413.68.7
Transport equipment2.79.111.77.72.66.66.7
Consumer price index100.011.613.59.67.510.110.2
(Annual percentage change; end of period)
Wholesale price index100.012.113.67.010.810.45.0
Primary articles32.317.115.33.011.512.75.4
Cereals6.825.326.9-2.715.418.44.3
Crude oil and natural gas4.3-0.41.91.919.95.1--
Fruits and vegetables4.122.719.09.7-8.610.630.1
Oilseeds3.926.64.7-8.714.123.2-5.2
Fuel and power10.714.413.215.213.12.43.7
Oil products6.720.69.218.86.7-0.10.9
Electricity2.711.413.79.830.75.39.6
Manufactures57.08.912.67.99.910.75.0
Sugar, etc.4.10.15.527.921.4-2.2-6.0
Edible oils2.432.71.9-7.16.318.3-2.3
Cotton textiles6.16.516.05.520.714.55.0
Chemicals, etc.7.4--17.716.8--20.5--
Iron and steel2.48.75.510.68.910.54.3
Nonelectrical machinery3.310.417.04.64.912.84.4
Electrical machinery3.03.321.0-5.3-6.1-12.510.7
Transport equipment2.727.613.82.79.6----
Consumer price index100.013.613.96.19.99.78.9
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.
Table 9.India: Consolidated Public Sector Operations, 1991/92-1995/96 1/
1991/921992/931993/94Budget

1994/95
Rev. Est.

1994/95
Budget

1995/96
(In billions of rupees)
Total revenue and grants 2/1,422.31,613.31,731.92,011.32,172.92,390.6
Tax revenue1,031.21,145.11,223.21,405.31,475.91,654.1
Nontax revenue 2/381.7458.9498.7592.4686.6725.0
Grants9.59.29.913.710.411.5
Total expenditure and net lending 3/1,996.32,274.72,612.72,952.73,031.33,425.2
Overall balance-574.0-661.5-880.9-941.4-858.4-1,034.5
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and grants 2/23.123.021.622.123.022.8
Total expenditure and net lending 3/32.432.432.632.532.132.7
Overall balance-9.3-9.4-11.0-10.4-9.1-9.9
Memorandum items:
Central Government balance-5.9-5.7-7.5-6.0-6.1-5.5
States’ balance-3.1-3.0-2.6-3.2-2.9-3.2
Central public enterprises’ balance-2.8-2.9-3.1-3.0-2.6-2.7
Net loans to states by Central Government1.51.21.31.11.51.1
Budgetary support of public sector enterprises1.10.90.90.80.90.7
Central Government’s non-plan loans to public sector enterprises0.10.10.10.10.1
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

The consolidation covers budgetary transactions at the levels of the Central and State Governments, the departmental undertakings of both levels of Government, the balance of the Oil Coordination Committee, and the central public enterprises.

Including internal resources of public enterprises indicated in footnote 1.

Including investment expenditure by public enterprises indicated in footnote 1.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

The consolidation covers budgetary transactions at the levels of the Central and State Governments, the departmental undertakings of both levels of Government, the balance of the Oil Coordination Committee, and the central public enterprises.

Including internal resources of public enterprises indicated in footnote 1.

Including investment expenditure by public enterprises indicated in footnote 1.

Table 10.India: Central Government Revenues 1991/92-1996/97(In billions of rupees)
1991/921992/931993/941994/95Budget

1995/96
Rev. Est.

1995/96
Budget

1996/97
Tax revenue (including States’ share)673.6746.4757.4922.91,037.61,103.31,321.5
Taxes on income and profit148.8175.1199.1266.4300.0322.5386.9
Corporate tax78.589.0100.6138.2155.0167.8196.0
Personal income tax67.378.991.2120.3135.0151.0178.4
Interest tax3.17.27.38.010.09.012.5
Taxes on property3.85.51.71.41.11.11.3
Estate duty and gift taxes0.10.10.10.20.10.10.1
Wealth and land taxes3.14.71.51.10.90.91.1
Stamp duties0.60.70.10.10.10.10.1
Taxes on goods and services298.4328.0334.7381.2441.5426.4488.9
Excise taxes281.1308.3317.0373.5427.8410.0468.8
Sales tax9.811.50.11.41.21.21.2
Expenditure tax--1.52.32.01.81.81.9
Other7.56.715.310.310.513.417.8
Taxes on international trade222.6237.8221.9267.9295.0353.5444.4
Import duties220.6235.8220.8266.5293.5352.4433.7
Export duties and cesses2.02.01.11.41.51.11.2
Less: States’share of tax revenue172.9205.9222.9248.4293.9292.7348.4
Tax revenue (net of States’ share)500.7540.5534.5674.5743.7810.8973.1
Nontax revenue171.9215.8242.2258.8296.4320.6367.9
Dividends and profits 1/10.624.924.527.229.532.340.5
Interest109.2124.9150.8158.0184.2183.7213.9
Oil sector receipts16.014.38.012.213.212.913.9
Other receipts 2/36.151.759.161.469.591.799.6
Foreign grants9.18.88.910.411.512.18.1
Total revenue and grants681.7765.1785.5943.71,051.61,143.51,349.1
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes Reserve Bank profits.

Excludes receipts from commercial departments.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes Reserve Bank profits.

Excludes receipts from commercial departments.

Table 11.India: Economic Classification of Central Government Expenditure, 1991/92-1995/96(In billions of rupees)
1991/921992/931993/94Rev. Est.

1994/95
Budget

1995/96
Current expenditure854.5961.51,128.61,267.61,420.0
Expenditure on goods and services244.7268.6318.2354.7383.6
Wages and salaries110.7126.2133.6149.4164.6
Other goods and services134.0142.4184.6205.3219.0
Interest payments249.5290.6344.9413.7489.2
Domestic222.5255.0307.7372.6446.1
Foreign27.035.637.241.143.1
Subsidies and current transfers264.2294.6322.5351.9377.0
Subsidies103.3104.8114.8122.7123.2
Food28.528.055.451.052.5
Fertilizer48.058.045.651.754.0
Export promotion17.58.26.75.63.4
Other9.310.67.114.413.3
Transfers160.9189.8207.7229.2253.8
States and Union Territories87.199.4117.2121.2134.8
Local authorities0.80.90.10.20.2
Households19.124.627.430.131.8
Other53.964.963.077.787.0
Unclassified96.0107.7143.0147.3170.2
Capital expenditure and net lending230.2235.6270.0321.1290.9
Gross fixed capital formation90.6116.4131.1151.6163.7
Buildings and construction51.259.665.373.880.0
Machinery and equipment39.456.865.877.883.7
Increase in stocks2.02.3-3.41.42.6
Capital transfers84.590.9118.1144.4149.7
Other levels of government70.980.092.384.083.6
Other13.610.925.860.466.1
Adjustments-89.9-108.2-141.5-187.3-196.7
Gross lending less loan repayments143.0134.2165.7211.0171.6
Total expenditure and net lending1,084.61,197.11,398.61,588.61,711.0
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Data have been adjusted to ensure conformity with the presentation in IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Data have been adjusted to ensure conformity with the presentation in IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook.

Table 12.India: Functional Classification of Central Government Expenditure, 1991/92-1995/96 1/(In billions of rupees)
1991/921992/931993/94Rev. Est.

1994/95
Budget

1995/96
General public services57.466.774.088.9108.8
Defense162.5174.0216.1232.6251.9
Education18.220.419.523.023.8
Medical and health services5.76.27.08.89.9
Other social and community services24.629.342.884.893.9
Economic services231.5257.5254.4308.4299.2
Agriculture71.883.561.876.374.9
Industry and minerals64.452.146.255.449.1
Transport and communications63.582.4106.5123.3132.9
Railways17.625.99.711.511.5
Post and telegraphs0.60.71.40.70.6
Other13.612.928.841.230.2
Other592.1657.7781.4887.0949.9
Interest249.6290.6344.9413.7489.2
Pensions19.124.627.430.131.8
Grants to States and Union Territories158.0179.4209.5205.2218.4
Loans and advances165.4163.1199.0238.0210.5
Unclassified41.446.864.220.837.8
Total expenditure and gross lending1,133.41,258.61,459.41,654.31,775.2
Less: Loan repayments48.861.560.865.764.2
Total expenditure and net lending1,084.61,197.11398.61,588.61,711.0
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Data have been adjusted to ensure conformity with the presentation in IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Data have been adjusted to ensure conformity with the presentation in IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook

Table 13.India: Central Government Debt, 1991/92-1996/97(In billions of rupees)
1991/921992/931993/941994/95Rev. Est.

1995/96
Budget

1996/97
Domestic debt3,177.13,596.54,306.24,976.85,530.46,153.2
Market loans780.2816.91,106.11,309.11,584.11,839.1
Treasury bills128.3293.9409.9484.9469.6558.9
91-day88.4206.1326.0323.3388.0477.3
182-day39.9----------
364-day--87.883.981.681.681.6
Special securities 1/720.5720.5720.5720.5720.5720.5
Small savings557.6601.3672.8817.1928.21051.7
Provident funds139.5168.8205.9247.2292.3330.8
Other 2/851.3995.11,191.01,478.01,535.71,652.2
External debt369.5422.7473.5509.3526.7549.0
Total debt3,546.64,019.24,779.75,486.16,057.16,782.2
In percent of GDP57.357.059.758.055.453.5
Source: Government of India, Receipts Budget, various issues.

Issued to the Reserve Bank.

Includes compensation, bearer and other bonds, securities issued to international financial institutions, and other deposits.

Source: Government of India, Receipts Budget, various issues.

Issued to the Reserve Bank.

Includes compensation, bearer and other bonds, securities issued to international financial institutions, and other deposits.

Table 14.India: Finances of States and Union Territories, 1991/92-1995/96
1991/921992/931993/94Budget

1994/95
Rev. Est.

1994/95
Budget

1995/96
(In billions of rupees)
Total revenue and grants830.7916.71,058.51,139.81,223.61,344.2
Tax revenue530.5604.6688.7777.9801.4910.4
Share of central government revenue172.9205.9222.9243.9248.8293.9
Sales tax198.2216.8258.3304.2287.0329.7
Other tax revenue159.4181.9207.5229.7266.0286.8
Nontax revenue 1/127.1128.8155.7163.5217.4215.4
Grants from Center173.2183.3214.1198.4204.8218.4
Total expenditure1,019.81,125.61,264.41,428.31,498.61,682.8
Development 2/745.9805.7884.8995.11,018.81,118.6
Nondevelopment271.5321.0389.3466.7499.0589.3
Other 3/2.4-1.1-9.7-33.5-19.2-25.1
Overall balance-189.0-208.9-206.0-288.4-275.0-338.6
Financing189.0208.9206.0288.4275.0338.6
Loans from Center (net)94.387.2105.195.5143.1115.3
Other 4/94.7121.7100.9192.9131.9223.3
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and grants13.513.013.212.512.912.8
Tax revenue8.68.68.68.68.58.7
Share of central government revenue2.82.92.82.72.62.8
Sales tax3.23.13.23.33.03.1
Other tax revenue2.62.62.62.52.82.7
Nontax revenue 1/2.11.81.91.82.32.1
Grants from Center2.82.62.72.22.22.1
Total expenditure16.616.015.815.715.816.0
Development 2/12.111.511.011.010.810.7
Nondevelopment4.44.64.95.15.35.6
Other 3/-----0.1-0.4-0.2-0.2
Overall balance-3.1-3.0-2.6-3.2-2.9-3.2
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes surplus of States’ public enterprises available for financing of the Plan.

Includes Plan expenditure by state enterprises financed from internal resources, extrabudgetary resources, and borrowing.

Includes recovery of loans and advances.

Market borrowing, other miscellaneous capital receipts, and borrowing from the banking system.

Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Includes surplus of States’ public enterprises available for financing of the Plan.

Includes Plan expenditure by state enterprises financed from internal resources, extrabudgetary resources, and borrowing.

Includes recovery of loans and advances.

Market borrowing, other miscellaneous capital receipts, and borrowing from the banking system.

Table 15.India: Central Government Public Enterprises--Summary of Financial Performance, 1985/86-1994/95
1985/861986/871987/881988/891989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95
Number of operating enterprises211214220226233236237239240241
(In billions of rupees)
Investment61.8119.696.5117.0140.0165.0219.7115.3
Capital employed429.7518.4556.2676.3847.61,020.81,179.91,401.11,598.41,613.1
Net worth221.0286.1345.4401.3477.6568.6563.2662.3
Gross turnover/sales623.6690.9812.7931.41,060.71,186.81,339.11,472.31,580.51,871.3
Gross margin82.799.0110.8134.4164.1183.1222.2252.3277.1332.5
Less: Depreciation29.833.841.448.757.972.185.592.791.5107.3
Gross profit52.965.269.485.7106.2111.0136.8159.6185.6225.2
Less: Interest31.234.235.941.753.376.096.7108.8119.0127.2
Net profit before tax21.731.033.544.152.935.040.050.866.598.0
Corporate tax10.013.313.214.115.012.316.518.021.125.8
Net profit after tax11.717.720.329.937.922.723.532.745.472.2
Dividends1.93.03.23.53.24.16.97.910.314.4
Memorandum items (in percent):
Gross profit/capital employed12.312.612.512.712.510.911.611.411.614.0
Net profit before tax/capital employed5.16.06.06.56.23.43.43.64.26.1
Net profit after tax/capital employed2.73.43.64.44.52.22.02.32.84.5
Source: Government of India, Public Enteprises Survey, various issues.
Source: Government of India, Public Enteprises Survey, various issues.
Table 16.India: Distribution of Central Government Public Enterprise Net Profit and Loss, 1985/86-1994/95 1/(In billions of rupees, unless otherwise noted)
1985/861986/871987/881988/891989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95
Enterprises producing goods11.015.617.525.533.919.717.521.733.755.6
Steel1.0-0.3-0.51.90.5-3.5-6.3-2.0-1.27.2
Minerals and metals-0.6-0.6-1.00.43.12.64.43.72.36.3
Coal and lignite-4.1-2.7-1.50.61.7-1.62.73.75.12.0
Thermal and hydroelectric power2.02.33.44.66.48.511.110.310.111.0
Petroleum16.521.421.725.629.023.017.823.339.545.6
Chemicals and fertilizers-1.4-1.5-1.1-2.1-2.5-4.0-4.7-5.3-2.91.0
Heavy engineering--0.10.30.80.5-1.3-1.1-1.1-3.7-4.3
Medium and light engineering0.50.50.50.40.60.60.61.10.5-1.8
Transport equipment-0.6-0.5-0.7-0.7-0.9-0.5-1.2-1.3-1.7-0.7
Consumer goods-1.1-1.4-1.2-2.6-2.3-1.9-2.4-4.1-7.0-6.4
Textiles-1.2-1.9-2.3-3.2-2.1-2.1-3.1-6.5-6.4-4.4
Agro-based products and others--0.2-0.1-0.2-0.1-0.1-0.1-0.1----
Enterprises rendering services0.72.12.84.44.03.06.011.111.816.5
Trading and marketing0.50.40.80.91.31.91.81.51.21.4
Transportation-0.3-0.6-0.40.90.9-0.5-0.81.2-0.3-0.5
Construction0.1-0.3-0.3-1.1-1.1-1.3-1.2-1.3-2.3-2.0
Other0.42.62.73.72.92.96.19.513.217.6
Total net profits 1/11.717.720.329.937.922.723.632.745.472.2
Net profit of profit-making enterprises 1/28.534.837.849.257.553.960.873.897.7121.2
Net loss of loss-making enterprises16.817.117.519.319.631.237.241.152.249.1
Number of profit-making enterprises119108114117131123133131121130
Number of loss-making enterprises9010010310698111102106116109
Source: Government of India, Public Enterprises Survey, various issues.

Aftertax.

Source: Government of India, Public Enterprises Survey, various issues.

Aftertax.

Table 17.India: Non-Profit Indicators of Central Government Public Enterprise Performance, 1985/86-1994/95(In billions of rupees, unless otherwise noted)
1985/861986/871987/881988/891989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95
Gross internal resource generation 1/50.760.169.189.1107.7113.0130.8147.9166.8200.3
In percent of investment82.050.371.676.276.968.958.9127.7
Net internal resource generation 2/42.651.360.480.198.5104.187.657.1
In percent of investment68.942.962.668.570.463.139.949.5
Contribution to central government revenue 3/90.6120.8151.3163.5182.6195.2199.5224.5229.9274.2
In percent of central government revenue30.033.338.436.835.433.927.728.228.927.1
Employment (in millions)2.22.22.22.22.22.22.22.22.22.1
Export earnings38.239.441.848.963.771.089.8103.3118.7133.4
In percent of turnover6.15.75.15.36.06.06.77.07.57.1
Source: Government of India, Public Enterprise Survey, various issues.

Net profit (after tax) minus dividends plus depreciation allowances and deferred current expenditure written off.

Gross internal resource generation less loan repayments.

Corporate tax, customs and other duties, and dividends.

Source: Government of India, Public Enterprise Survey, various issues.

Net profit (after tax) minus dividends plus depreciation allowances and deferred current expenditure written off.

Gross internal resource generation less loan repayments.

Corporate tax, customs and other duties, and dividends.

Table 18.India: Top Profit-and Top Loss-Making Central Government Public Enterprises in 1994/95
Pre-Tax Profits
RankProfit-Making EnterprisesBillions of

Rupees
Percent Share

of Total

Profits
1. Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd.19.313.1
2. Indian Oil Corp. Ltd.13.79.3
3. Steel Authority of India Ltd.11.67.9
4. National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd.11.27.6
5. Maha Nagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.10.47.1
6. Indian Petro-Chemicals Corp. Ltd.6.04.1
7. Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd.5.83.9
8. Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd.5.23.5
9. Bharat Petroleum Corp. Ltd.4.63.1
10. Gas Authority of India Ltd.3.72.5
Total91.662.3
Total pre-tax profits of all
profit-making enterprises147.1100.0
(in percent of 1994/95 GDP)1.6
Net Loss
Billions of

Rupees
Percent Share

of Total

Losses
1. Hindustan Fertilizer Corp.4.08.1
2. Fertilizer Corp. of India Ltd.3.87.7
3. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd.3.67.4
4. Delhi Transport Corporation3.16.3
5. Heavy Engineering Corp. Ltd.2.75.5
6. Indian Airlines Ltd.1.93.8
7. Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.1.53.2
8. Cement Corp. of India Ltd.1.53.1
9. Nuclear Power Corp. of India Ltd.1.22.5
10. Central Coalfields Ltd.1.22.4
Total24.549.9
Total losses of all loss-making
enterprises49.1100.0
(in percent of 1994/95 GDP)0.5
Source: Public Enterprises Survey 1994/95, Government of India.
Source: Public Enterprises Survey 1994/95, Government of India.
Table 19.India: Profitability of State Government Enterprises, 1990/91-1994/95 1/(In billions of rupees)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Est.

1994/95
Electricity boards-37.5-41.2-43.6-48.8-55.5
Road transport corporations-3.2-3.4-3.6-3.8-2.8
Forestry4.04.83.84.64.5
Mines and minerals0.61.47.57.99.0
Commercial irrigation and river projects-15.7-13.0-11.1-11.6-14.8
Power projects-0.7-2.5-1.4-1.8-1.6
Water transport and others-2.8-2.2-3.1-1.9-2.2
Total-55.3-56.1-51.6-55.4-63.4
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Excluding subsidies.

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Excluding subsidies.

Table 20.India: Reserve Money, 1991/92-1996/971 1/
1991/921992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
MarchMarchMarchMarchJuneSeptemberDecemberMarchJune
(In billions of rupees at end of period)
Reserve money9951,1081,3871,6931,7831,7461,7381,9431,930
Currency in circulation6377138541,0471,1481,1101,1721,2251314
Currency with public6116838231,0071,1061,0741,1371,1821,268
Cash with banks263131404236364346
Bankers’ deposits34938150861256659060685547
Other deposits91325346946593370
Net domestic assets of RBI8078818739461,0681,0289921,2021,170
Net claims on Government9409859931,0151,1191,0821,1081,2131,345
Center9239659689891,1201,0771,1041,1881,343
States18192526-0.263262
Gross claims on banks51995613512011211822076
Gross claims on commercial sector736265666665656965
Other items, net-257-264-240-270-236-232-299-299-316
Net foreign assets of RBI188227514747715719746741760
(Annual percent change)
Reserve money13.411.325.222.120.819.212.614.88.2
Net domestic assets of RBI1.19.2-1.08.419.529.315.327.29.5
Net claims on Government5.84.70.92.213.421.920.919.620.2
Gross claims on banks-49.093.7-43.8142.793.788.845.163.0-36.7
Gross claims on commercial sector14.5-14.33.72.21.10.62.74.0-1.5
(In billions of rupees)
Memorandum item:
Flow monetization of fiscal deficit 2/554332113188115199155
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Except for March 31, all other quarters are on a last reporting Friday basis.

Cumulative flow of net credit to the Central Government from April 1 of fiscal year.

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Except for March 31, all other quarters are on a last reporting Friday basis.

Cumulative flow of net credit to the Central Government from April 1 of fiscal year.

Table 21.India: Monetary Survey, 1991/92-1996/97 1/
1991/921992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
MarchMarchMarchMarchJuneSept.Dec.MarchJune
(In billions of rupees at end of period)
Broad money (M3)3,1703,6684,3445,3145,3615,5325,6686,0186,232
Currency with public6116838231,0071,1061,0741,1371,1821,268
Deposits2,5512,9723,4964,2744,1854,4134,4714,8034,895
Nonbank deposits at RBI91325346946603370
Net domestic assets2,9583,4243,7994,5364,6154,7834,8925,2475,459
Domestic credit3,4633,9644,4175,1515,2705,3835,5965,9836,133
Net credit to Government1,5831,7622,0392,2242,3402,3552,4222,5742,747
Credit to commercial sector1,8802,2012,3782,9272,9313,0283,1543,4093,386
Commercial banks1,2561,5201,6442,1162,0872,2182,3282,540249.2
Nonfood1,2091,4521,5351,9931,9322,0922,2112,442237.2
Food476710912315512611798120
Other 2/624682734812844810827869894
Other items (net)-504-540-618-615-655-600-704-736-674
Net foreign assets212244545778746749777772773
(Annual percent change)
Broad money (M3)19.315.718.422.317.115.414.513.216.3
Currency with public15.211.720.622.322.125.719.817.414.6
Deposits20.316.517.622.215.313.012.712.416.9
Net domestic assets15.915.611.019.416.416.915.415.717.8
Domestic credit11.014.511.416.615.716.316.316.116.4
Net credit to Government12.911.415.79.17.712.913.015.717.4
Credit to commercial sector9.417.18.023.123.119.218.916.515.5
Commercial bank credit to nonfood8.220.15.729.826.625.426.722.522.8
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

End-year data are a consolidation of March 31 data for the RBI and the last reporting Friday data for commercial banks; all other quarters are on a last reporting Friday basis.

Includes RBI commercial credit, bank holdings of securities, and credit to cooperatives.

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

End-year data are a consolidation of March 31 data for the RBI and the last reporting Friday data for commercial banks; all other quarters are on a last reporting Friday basis.

Includes RBI commercial credit, bank holdings of securities, and credit to cooperatives.

Table 22.India: Financial Assets of Financial Institutions and Banks, 1989/90-1994/95(In billions of rupees at end of period)
1989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95
I. Banks (1+2+3) 1/2,0552,3282,7193,1303,7354,558
1. All scheduled commercial banks1,9642,2262,5992,9953,5844,381
2. Nonscheduled commercial banks111111
3. State Cooperative Banks91101119134150177
II. Financial Institutions 2/1,0221,2271,5781,8132,1382,484
4. Term-lending institutions 3/449521652737810920
S. State level institutions79100115126132142
6. Investment institutions 4/4775867879211,1581,371
7. Other institutions 5/172024293851
III. Total (I+II)3,0773,5544,2974,9435,8737,042
IV. Percentage share of banks in
total66.865.563.363.363.664.7
Source: Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 1994/95, Reserve Bank of India.

Includes: cash in hand and balances with the RBI; assets with the banking system; investments; bank credit (total loans, cash-credits, and overdrafts and bills purchased and discounted); and dues from banks. Data are on a last Friday basis.

Figures pertain to the accounting year of the respective financial institution.

Term-lending institutions include NABARD, ICICI, IDBI, IFCI, IRBI, EXIM and NHB.

Investment institutions include UTI, LIC, and GIC and subsidiaries.

Other institutions include DICGC and ECGC.

Source: Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 1994/95, Reserve Bank of India.

Includes: cash in hand and balances with the RBI; assets with the banking system; investments; bank credit (total loans, cash-credits, and overdrafts and bills purchased and discounted); and dues from banks. Data are on a last Friday basis.

Figures pertain to the accounting year of the respective financial institution.

Term-lending institutions include NABARD, ICICI, IDBI, IFCI, IRBI, EXIM and NHB.

Investment institutions include UTI, LIC, and GIC and subsidiaries.

Other institutions include DICGC and ECGC.

Table 23.India: Selected Interest Rates, 1991/92-1995/96(End of period; in percent per annum)
1991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
Reserve Bank of India
Bank rate12.012.012.012.012.1
Export refinance9.511.011.011.011.0
Interest on bank reserves
Base rate 1/10.510.510.510.510.5
Incremental rate 2/5.0--------
Discount and Finance House of India, Ltd.
182-day Treasury bill refinance13.012.010.013.013.0
Commercial bills refinance14.015.015.0
Commercial bank deposits
3-6 months11.0}
6-9 months11.0}
1-2 years12.0}11.010.011.012.0
2-3 years12.0}(ceiling)(ceiling)(ceiling)(ceiling)
3-5 years13.0}
Over 5 years13.0}
Savings deposits5.06.05.04.54.5
Commercial bank loans
Exports8.5-24.06.5-22.06.5-20.06.5-15.013.0
Food19.017.015.014.016.5
General 3/19.017.015.0FreeFree
Government obligations
Three-month Treasury bills10.87.311.813.0
364-day bills11.110.111.813.1
Bonds: maximum yield 4/12.512.812.512.714.0
Private sector obligations
Call money rate12.712.54.913.116.3
Unit trust dividend rate 5/25.026.026.026.020.0
Preference shares (ceiling rate)14.014.014.014.0
Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Paid on eligible reserves maintained relating to bank deposits through March 1990.

Paid on required reserves relating to the increment in bank deposits after March 1990.

Floor rate on loans over Rs 200,000.

Preannounced coupon rates up to 1991/92 and auction rates thereafter.

Pertains to Unit Scheme, 1964; the accounting year of Unit Trust of India is July-June.

Source: Data provided by the Indian authorities.

Paid on eligible reserves maintained relating to bank deposits through March 1990.

Paid on required reserves relating to the increment in bank deposits after March 1990.

Floor rate on loans over Rs 200,000.

Preannounced coupon rates up to 1991/92 and auction rates thereafter.

Pertains to Unit Scheme, 1964; the accounting year of Unit Trust of India is July-June.

Table 24.India: Sources of Financing for Private Investment, 1992/93-1995/96(In billions of rupees)
1992/931993/941994/951995/96
Total651.3681.91,112.11,139.2
Domestic financing642.7527.5926.11,000.0
Debt543.7427.2750.5876.1
Commercial bank borrowing321.0171.0432.0513.0
Disbursements from Indian financial institutions222.7256.2318.5363.1
Debentures98.493.288.739.8
Equity (new share issues)99.0100.3175.7123.9
Foreign financing 1/8.6154.4186.0139.2
Debt-13.619.432.32.7
Equity22.1135.0153.7136.5
Foreign direct investment13.019.841.366.3
Foreign institutional investment--53.147.263.3
Global depository receipts9.162.265.26.9
Sources: Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Converted from U.S. dollars using the period average exchange rate.

Sources: Indian authorities; and staff estimates.

Converted from U.S. dollars using the period average exchange rate.

Table 25.India: Principal Imports, 1990/91-1995/96(Value in millions of U.S. dollars, volume in millions of metric tons)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Est.

1994/95
Est.

1995/96
Edible oils
Value1821015853198653
Volume0.50.20.10.10.31.0
Fertilizers
Value98495497882610521610
Volume7.66.77.57.88.410.5
Iron and steel
Value1,1787997787951,1641,479
Volume1.91.41.41.42.14.5
Foodgrains
Value10270334922924
Volume0.30.21.60.40.10.1
Petroleum products (value)5,7795,0146,0575,7535,9287,537
Crude oil
Value3,2473,0163,8503,408
Volume (million barrels)20.823.629.430.8
Petroleum products
Value2,5321,9982,2072,245
Volume (million barrels)8.59.210.612.1
Nonferrous metals614341395471710908
Gems2,0831,9572,4422,6351,6302,081
Chemicals1,3701,4431,4961,6282,4782,998
Machinery and transport equipment4,2432,6323,1074,8385,8887,664
Other goods7,5406,1006,2376,22115,47418,858
Total imports, c.i.f. (customs basis)24,07519,41121,88223,30628,65436,370
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey; data provided by the Indian authorities.
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey; data provided by the Indian authorities.
Table 26.India: Principal Exports, 1990/91-1995/96(Value in millions of U.S. dollars, volume in thousands of metric tons)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Est.

1994/95
Est.

1995/96
Tea
Value596491337338311350
Volume199216168154151157
Coffee
Value141135130174335451
Volume8798114119128157
Oil cakes
Value339374534709573703
Volume2,4483,6983,6794,2214,1514328
Cashew kernels
Value249274259334396368
Volume565263747798
Rice
Value2573063374103841361
Volume5056785807688915521
Marine products
Value5355856028141,1261,012
Volume159190212257321312
Iron ore
Value585582381438413518
Volume 1/333022272630
Tobacco (unmanufactured)
Value1471531641175888
Volume878488914362
Spices
Value133160136181195235
Volume103143129182155212
Oil products
Value523415476398417454
Volume 1/
Textiles and garments3,8074,0244,3154,7416,4267,280
Jute goods166159123124151178
Leather and leather goods1,4491,2691,2771,3241,6111,723
Engineering goods 2/2,0992,1402,3262,8303,3824,277
Gems and jewelry2,9242,7383,0723,9964,5005,275
Chemicals and allied products1,1761,5831,3781,8682,4342,930
Other goods3,0172,4772,6913,3384,4426,982
Total exports (customs basis)18,14317,86518,53722,23826,33031,830
Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, and data provided by the Indian authorities.

In millions of metric tons.

Includes electronics and computer software.

Sources: Government of India, Economic Survey, and data provided by the Indian authorities.

In millions of metric tons.

Includes electronics and computer software.

Table 27.India: Direction of Trade, 1991/92-1995/96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1991/921992/931993/94Prov.

1994/95
Est.

1995/96
ExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImports
United States2,9211,9953,5162,1473,9992,7425,0212,9065,5183,828
European Community5,6655,2476,6035,7976,9946,9947,0317,1148,41-29,752
Of which:
France425615472595504593582615747837
Germany (formerly Federal Republic of United Kingdom) 1/1,2701,5591,4271,6571,5391,7881,7482,1871,9833,137
Japan1,6511,3691,4361,4281,7411,5272,0272,0402,2162,410
Oil exporting countries 2/1,5633,8531,7874,7272,3825,2162,4306,0523,0687,632
Of which:
Iran, Islamic Republic of123582114398159380157536153589
Iraq..264------1--
Saudi Arabia3511,4434071,4955111,5454361,5694792,018
Eastern Europe1,9539927805548474119506781,2271,239
Of which: FSU1,6407296072556492578075041,047853
Other countries4,9505,5375,7695,8237,4716,4168,8719,86411,38911,499
Total17,86519,41118,53721,28222,23723,30026,33028,65431,83036,470
Source: Based on provisional data provided by the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.

Customs basis.

UNCTAD classification of major petroleum exporters.

Source: Based on provisional data provided by the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.

Customs basis.

UNCTAD classification of major petroleum exporters.

Table 28.India: Trade and Balances Under Bilateral Arrangements, 1990/91-1995/96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
Exports
Czech and Slovak
Federal Republic8114391983220
Poland968064526788
Romania53128221630
U.S.S.R./CIS2,9292,1326077638891,047
Total3,1592,3677709351,0041,194
Imports
Czech and Slovak
Federal Republic1494659314657
Poland8179814545128
Romania2825552548146
U.S.S.R./CIS1,420729255374730853
Total1,6788794504758691,184
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Indian authorities; and staff estimates.
Table 29.India: Official Reserves, 1990/91-1995/96(In millions of U.S. dollars; end of period)
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
Gold 1/504542558583696654
SDR holdings1029018108782
Reserve position in IMF----296299331311
Foreign exchange2,2365,6316,43415,06820,80917,044
Gross reserves2,8426,2637,30616,05821,84318,091
Use of Fund credit2,6233,4514,7995,0404,3002,374
Net reserves 2/2192,8122,50711,01817,54315,717
Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Gold valued at SDR 35 per troy ounce.

Defined as gross reserves minus use of Fund credit.

Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and data provided by the Indian authorities.

Gold valued at SDR 35 per troy ounce.

Defined as gross reserves minus use of Fund credit.

Table 30.India: External Debt, 1991-96(In billions of U.S. dollars; end of period)
March
199119921993199419951996
Medium and long term62.667.973.079.085.279.4
Multilateral20.923.125.026.328.528.6
Government borrowing19.921.723.224.226.226.1
Concessional13.414.315.516.017.817.6
Of which: IDA(13.1)(14.0)(15.2)(15.7)(17.4)(17.3)
Nonconcessional6.57.37.78.18.48.5
Of which: IBRD(6.3)(6.8)(6.9)(7.2)(7.1)(6.9)
Nongovernment borrowing1.01.41.82.12.42.5
Bilateral14.215.516.217.520.318.7
Government borrowing (concessional)11.913.113.614.516.815.3
Nongovernment borrowing2.22.42.62.93.43.5
Export credit4.34.04.35.26.65.5
Commercial borrowing10.211.711.612.413.012.7
Of which: Commercial bank loans(6.8)(6.7)(6.5)(6.0)(5.8)(5.7)
Nonresident Indian deposits 1/
(Including FCBOD)10.210.111.112.712.411.5
IMF2.63.54.85.04.32.4
Short term8.57.16.33.64.35.0
Of which: NRI deposits 2/(3.6)(2.5)(2.6)(1.3)(2.3)
Total convertible currency debt71.175.079.382.689.484.4
(In percent of GDP)(23.8)(29.8)(29.7)(32.3)(29.7)(25.8)
Nonconvertible currency debt12.810.410.610.19.68.2
Total external debt83.885.390.092.799.092.7
(In percent of GDP)(28.1)(33.9)(33.7)(36.3)(32.9)(28.4)
Sources: Government of India; and staff estimates.

Deposits of one or more years’ maturity. Excludes nonrepatiable, nonresident rupee deposits.

Deposits of up to one year’s maturity.

Sources: Government of India; and staff estimates.

Deposits of one or more years’ maturity. Excludes nonrepatiable, nonresident rupee deposits.

Deposits of up to one year’s maturity.

Table 31.India: External Commercial Borrowing, 1/ 1991/92-1995/96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1991/921992/931993/941994/951995/96
Total sanctions2,1272,2002,8584,3676,286
By sector 2/
Financial institutions9482592944761,849
Power----2081,884616
Railways--------45
Shipping80166460117105
Telecom----460117105
Petroleum----970129160
Civil aviation----9118390
EOUs----15648191
Others----4061,6952,897
Gross disbursement2,7981,0011,8592,6703,600 3/
Outstanding debt15,70015,81817,65022,50019,600 3/
(Percent of total external debt)(18.4)(17.6)(19.0)(22.7)(21.5)
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and various newspapers.

It covers those borrowings which are controlled by “ECB guidelines” and includes loans from banks abroad, bonds (except foreign currency convertible bonds), credit from official export credit agencies, the private sector’s portion of borrowing from multilateral financing institutions. Medium- and long-term borrowing which is not regulated under the ECB guidelines includes foreign currency convertible bonds and export credits, which are related to defense purposes.

Breakup by sectors is not available (apart from financial institutions and shipping for 1991/92 and 1992/93).

As of September 1996.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and various newspapers.

It covers those borrowings which are controlled by “ECB guidelines” and includes loans from banks abroad, bonds (except foreign currency convertible bonds), credit from official export credit agencies, the private sector’s portion of borrowing from multilateral financing institutions. Medium- and long-term borrowing which is not regulated under the ECB guidelines includes foreign currency convertible bonds and export credits, which are related to defense purposes.

Breakup by sectors is not available (apart from financial institutions and shipping for 1991/92 and 1992/93).

As of September 1996.

1

India’s fiscal year begins April 1.

2

A detailed analysis of the reform program is provided in India: Economic Reform and Growth, International Monetary Fund, Occasional Paper 134 (December 1995).

3

The decline in savings during 1991/92-1993/94 may be overstated owing to estimation problems. See the forthcoming Selected Issues Paper for a more detailed discussion.

4

Provisional estimates of the expenditure side of the national income accounts for 1995/96 will not be available until early 1997.

5

The main items with administered prices include: petroleum products, crude oil, and natural gas; urea; and fuel, power, and lubricants.

6

Both indices are based on relatively outdated weights: the base year for the CPI is 1982 and for the WPI is 1981/82. In addition, the CPI has limited coverage with separate indices covering the consumption baskets for particular groups (industrial workers, urban non-manual employees and agricultural laborers).

7

Further information on challenges in the infrastructure sector is provided in the World Bank’s 1996 Country Economic Memorandum, Five Years of Stabilization and Reform: The Challenges Ahead, and The India Infrastructure Report: Policy Imperatives for Growth and Welfare, prepared by the Expert Group on the Commercialization of Infrastructure Projects and submitted to the Government in June 1996.

8

These issues are discussed in more detail in Chapter V in India: Economic Reform and Growth, Occasional Paper No. 134, International Monetary Fund (December 1995).

9

The budget included reductions in excise duty rates on a wide range of manufactured goods, and further reductions in import tariffs, bringing the peak tariff rate down from 65 percent to 50 percent.

10

MODVAT payments on domestic capital goods have been fully deductible from excise duty since 1994/95, with no “phasing-in” provisions. Problems in MOD VAT administration resulted from the claiming of tax credits for ineligible inputs and for inputs used in relation to the manufacture of exempted goods, as well as use of forged invoices for MOD VAT credits.

11

Seventy-five percent of net collections under a variety of small savings schemes are automatically on-lent to states.

12

For a discussion of the state tax system and the scope for reform, see Chapter III of SM/95/157 (6/28/95).

13

The full 1996/97 budget was presented to Parliament in July 1996. An interim budget, based on unchanged tax policies, was introduced in February 1996 to authorize expenditure for the first four months of 1996/97.

14

If the total taxable income of a corporation is less than 30 percent of book profits, the total income of the corporation will be deemed to be 30 percent of book profits and will be taxed at the existing corporate tax rate (at present 43 percent, including the surcharge). The effective minimum corporate tax rate would thus be 12.9 percent of book profits.

15

Up to the 1996/97 budget, MOD VAT invoices could be issued by any registered dealer, which had facilitated misuse of invoices for claiming MOD VAT credits.

16

A reduction of customs duty on crude oil from 35 percent to 25 percent and an increase in the excise duty from 10 percent to 15 percent on petroleum products, except liquefied propane gas and kerosene, has shifted taxation of the oil sector from the import stage to the product stage.

17

The hike in the fertilizer subsidy is concentrated on the non-nitrogenous (phosphatic and potassic) fertilizers. The subsidy on these fertilizers had previously been reduced as a cost-cutting measure in 1992/93.

18

Basic minimum services include the provision of safe drinking water, health, education, public housing, rural roads, and subsidized food for the poor.

19

At present, coverage of the PDS, which is administered at the state level although financed mainly by the central government, varies substantially from state to state.

20

The Pay Commission is a constitutionally mandated body set up to make recommendations about every five years on the central government’s pay scales, which are otherwise adjusted only for cost-of-living changes (the “dearness allowance”). Although there is no statutory requirement, states generally grant similar increases to those recommended by the Pay Commission.

21

For a detailed discussion of the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission, see Chapter III of SM/95/154 (6/26/95).

22

Percent changes for 1994/95 and 1995/96 are based on mid-March data to avoid reporting anomalies related to the fact that the last day of the financial year in 1994/95--on which commercial banks normally experience a surge in deposits associated with government payments--happened to fall on a reporting Friday. Using end-March data, the percent changes for M3 in 1994/95 and 1995/96 were 22.1 and 13.0 percent, respectively.

23

These problems included uncertainties regarding the re-introduction of the carry-forward system and problems with pricing irregularities and meeting new disclosure requirements The carry-forward system for stock transactions, which allowed for a 90-day period between delivery and payment of each settlement, was suspended in March 1994 amid concerns about speculative misuse.

24

The floor on lending rates (except for small loans) was eliminated in October 1994. Since then, banks have quoted different prime rates with private banks’ rates generally somewhat higher than the public banks. Recently, the public banks have also moved away from uniform prime lending rates.

25

According to the 1994 agreement, net new issues of ad hoc treasury bills--which carry an annual yield of 4.6 percent--should not exceed Rs 90 billion for more than 10 consecutive working days at any time during the fiscal year and should be limited to Rs 50 at the end of 1995/96. Under the terms of the agreement, when use of ad hoes exceeded the Rs 90 billion for more than the stipulated period, the RBI would automatically arrange for the auction of additional, treasury bills.

26

Issues related to reform in the public sector banks and improving the RBFs supervisory capabilities are discussed in the forthcoming Selected Issues Paper.

27

The interest rate on commercial bank deposits with a term under one-year is still regulated; the maximum annual interest rate is currently 12.5 percent.

28

A fixed rate of 13.5 percent is stipulated for all advances with limits between Rs. 25,000 and Rs 200,000; and of 12.0 percent for loans up to Rs.25,000.

29

Primary dealers are separately capitalized subsidiaries that agree to: (i) participate in primary auctions and cover a pre-fixed portion of unsubscribed securities, if necessary; (ii) distribute government securities to a wide range of participants; (iii) provide continuous two-way quotations and carry out a minimum volume of trading; (iv) meet specified capital standards and report regularly to the RBI on securities activity; and (v) provide an effective conduit for RBI open market operations. To carry out these functions in an efficient and profitable manner, the RBI extends certain facilities to the dealers including: (i) a current account with the RBI and a book entry securities holding account; (ii) permission to borrow and lend in the call money market and to trade in all money market instruments, including repos; (iii) access to a standing facility for liquidity support; and (iv) commissions for primary market participation.

30

Imports reported in the official balance of payments statistics prepared by the RBI are based on payments data, and hence include the change in use of import financing. In 1995/96, recourse to import financing rose significantly, boosting apparent import growth. Based on customs data, import growth in 1995/96 was 28 percent (Appendix Table 25).

31

Part of the apparent slowdown in dollar terms reflected the strengthening of the dollar from a year earlier; in terms of SDRs, export growth during the first five months was 17.5 percent and that of imports was 12.1 percent.

32

The measures consisted of (i) terminating the Post-Shipment Export Credit Facility denominated in Foreign Currency (PSCFC), which had been provided at a preferential rate of 7.5 percent for maturity up to 180 days; and (ii) freeing interest rates of Post-Shipment Export rupee credit for a maturity greater than 180 days. Interest rates for a shorter maturity (90 days) are subject to a ceiling of 13 percent.

33

New deposits under the scheme have not been accepted since August 1994. The final deposits under the scheme will mature in August 1997.

1/

India does not have access to the Bank’s concessional resources from the Asian Development Fund (ADF).

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