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Quality of Government and Living Standards
			: Adjusting for the Efficiency of Public Spending

Quality of Government and Living Standards : Adjusting for the Efficiency of Public Spending »

Volume/Issue: 2012/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , and Eduardo Ley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505306.001

ISBN: 9781475505306

Keywords: System of National Accounts, Efficiency, Living Standards, national accounts, public spending, input-output, health care, Publicly Provided Goods: General, Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues: General, Social Security and Public Pensions

It is generally acknowledged that the government's output is difficult to define and its value is hard to measure. The practical solution, adopted by national accounts systems, is to equate output to input costs. H...

Central Bank Independence and Transparency
			: Evolution and Effectiveness

Central Bank Independence and Transparency : Evolution and Effectiveness »

Volume/Issue: 2008/119

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , and Ellen Meade

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869798.001

ISBN: 9781451869798

Keywords: inflation, central bank, inflation targeting, monetary fund

This paper examines the current level of central bank independence (CBI) and transparency in a broad sample of countries using newly constructed measures, and looks at the evolution in both measures from an earlier...